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Pathogens 2016, 5(3), 51;

FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System

Institute for Microbiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30173 Hannover, Germany
Animal Sciences Group (ASG) of Wageningen UR, 8219 PH Lelystad, The Netherlands
Institute for Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, 30173 Hannover, Germany
Lehrstuhl für Biochemie, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Centre for Infection Medicine, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariela Segura
Received: 15 April 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 14 July 2016 / Published: 21 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Streptococcus suis)
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Streptococcus (S.) suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing septicemia and meningitis in pigs and humans. During infection S. suis must metabolically adapt to extremely diverse environments of the host. CcpA and the FNR family of bacterial transcriptional regulators are important for metabolic gene regulation in various bacteria. The role of CcpA in S. suis is well defined, but the function of the FNR-like protein of S. suis, FlpS, is yet unknown. Transcriptome analyses of wild-type S. suis and a flpS mutant strain suggested that FlpS is involved in the regulation of the central carbon, arginine degradation and nucleotide metabolism. However, isotopologue profiling revealed no substantial changes in the core carbon and amino acid de novo biosynthesis. FlpS was essential for the induction of the arcABC operon of the arginine degrading pathway under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The arcABC-inducing activity of FlpS could be associated with the level of free oxygen in the culture medium. FlpS was necessary for arcABC-dependent intracellular bacterial survival but redundant in a mice infection model. Based on these results, we propose that the core function of S. suis FlpS is the oxygen-dependent activation of the arginine deiminase system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Streptococcus suis; FNR-like protein; arginine deiminase system Streptococcus suis; FNR-like protein; arginine deiminase system

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Willenborg, J.; Koczula, A.; Fulde, M.; de Greeff, A.; Beineke, A.; Eisenreich, W.; Huber, C.; Seitz, M.; Valentin-Weigand, P.; Goethe, R. FlpS, the FNR-Like Protein of Streptococcus suis Is an Essential, Oxygen-Sensing Activator of the Arginine Deiminase System. Pathogens 2016, 5, 51.

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