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Pathogens 2015, 4(3), 599-605; doi:10.3390/pathogens4030599

Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures

1
Department of Pharmacy Services, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102, USA
2
Center for Anti-Infective Research and Development, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102, USA
3
Division of Infectious Diseases, Hartford Hospital, 80 Seymour Street, Hartford, CT 06102, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rachel McLoughlin
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 15 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 30 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Staphylococcus Aureus Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [192 KB, uploaded 30 July 2015]

Abstract

Susceptibility testing with the use of surrogate agents is common among clinical microbiology laboratories. One such example is oxacillin and cefoxitin for β-lactams against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). This study aimed to assess the surrogate predictive value (SPV) of oxacillin and cefoxitin for the susceptibility of commonly utilized parenteral β-lactams against MSSA as well as to evaluate the concordance between predictive susceptibility testing and the in vivo exposures for ceftriaxone. Broth microdilution MICs were determined for cefazolin, cefoxitin, ceftaroline, ceftriaxone, nafcillin, and oxacillin against a national collection of 1238 MSSA from US hospitals. Pharmacodynamic profiling was utilized to establish a clinical breakpoint for commonly utilized doses of ceftriaxone. Oxacillin had good SPVs for all the β-lactams tested, whereas cefoxitin produced unacceptable major errors for all four agents and thus appears to be an unacceptable susceptibility surrogate. While oxacillin is an adequate surrogate based on the currently defined laboratory criteria, our data also suggest that caution should be exercised when incorporating this testing approach in the clinical setting in view of the fact that the MIC distribution of MSSA coupled with the commonly utilized low doses of ceftriaxone may result in inadequate in vivo exposures against this pathogen. View Full-Text
Keywords: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus; susceptibility; surrogate methicillin-susceptible S. aureus; susceptibility; surrogate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, N.; Housman, S.T.; Nicolau, D.P. Assessing the Surrogate Susceptibility of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin for Commonly Utilized Parenteral Agents against Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus: Focus on Ceftriaxone Discordance between Predictive Susceptibility and in Vivo Exposures. Pathogens 2015, 4, 599-605.

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