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Soc. Sci. 2017, 6(2), 62; doi:10.3390/socsci6020062

The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Teachers

1
Primary Education Directorate of Eastern Attica, Glyka Nera 15454, Greece
2
Faculty of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 10680, Greece
3
Centre for Health Services Research, Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Medical School of National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens 11527, Greece
4
National School of Public Health, 196 Alexandras Ave., Athens 11521, Greece
5
Early Childhood Education, University of Ioannina, P.O. Box 1186, Ioannina 45110, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martin J. Bull
Received: 25 November 2016 / Revised: 10 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 12 June 2017
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Abstract

The present study examined the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire’s (TEQ) validity and reliability in a sample of 3955 Greek teachers. In order to test the internal consistency reliability, the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used and was found satisfactory at 0.72. The sample was randomly split and an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted in the even subsample, justifying the one-factor solution, with the only discrepancy of the low loading of an item. In the odd subsample a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to confirm the one-factor model identified by the EFA. The chi square test (χ2) of the model was significant (p < 0.05), while the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), the comparative fit index (CFI) and the goodness of fit index (GFI) values were 0.078, 0.969 and 0.960, respectively, further supporting the model’s fit. Student’s t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that women, teachers with children of their own, those working full-time in public schools, those with students who needed special education, and those who had received mental health promotion training, scored higher. Additionally, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that sex, working status, having students who needed special education, and having attended mental health training courses were independently associated with TEQ score. The analyses confirmed that the Greek version of TEQ could be used for researches in Greek educators as a valid and reliable measure of teachers’ empathy. View Full-Text
Keywords: empathy; Toronto Empathy Questionnaire; TEQ; teachers/educators; reliability; validity; Greek sample empathy; Toronto Empathy Questionnaire; TEQ; teachers/educators; reliability; validity; Greek sample
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kourmousi, N.; Amanaki, E.; Tzavara, C.; Merakou, K.; Barbouni, A.; Koutras, V. The Toronto Empathy Questionnaire: Reliability and Validity in a Nationwide Sample of Greek Teachers. Soc. Sci. 2017, 6, 62.

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