Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics
AbstractWith the increasing adoption of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), concerns arise about potential glare. While recommended criteria to assess glare exist, it is challenging to apply these in the spatial and temporal domains and communicate the complex data to planning authorities and clients. This paper presents a new computational workflow using annual daylight simulation, material modelling using bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) and image-based postprocessing to obtain 3-dimensional renderings of cumulative annual irradiance and glare duration on the built environment. The annual daylight simulation considers relevant sun positions in high temporal resolution (15-min timesteps) and measured BSDFs to model different PV materials. The postprocessing includes a relative irradiance visualisation comparing the impact of a proposed PV proportional to a reference material. It also includes a new spatio-temporal workflow to assess the glare duration based on recommended thresholds. This workflow is demonstrated with a case study of a proposed PV roof for a church, assessing the glare potential of two different PV materials. The visualisations indicate glare durations well below the thresholds with satinated PVs, and in noncritical zones outside observer positions with standard PVs. Thus the proposed PV roof does not cause any disturbing glare. View Full-Text
Externally hosted supplementary file 1
Description: Animated GIF of daily maximum sustained glare duration for 1/2 year
Externally hosted supplementary file 2
Description: Video of irradiance on environment as seen in panoramic view from PV roof for 1/2 year
Externally hosted supplementary file 3
Description: Video showing reflections from different PV roof materials for 1/2 year, as seen looking east over PV roof.
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Schregle, R.; Renken, C.; Wittkopf, S. Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics. Buildings 2018, 8, 101.
Schregle R, Renken C, Wittkopf S. Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics. Buildings. 2018; 8(8):101.Chicago/Turabian Style
Schregle, Roland; Renken, Christian; Wittkopf, Stephen. 2018. "Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics." Buildings 8, no. 8: 101.