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Buildings 2018, 8(8), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8080101

Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics

1
School of Engineering and Architecture, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Technikumstrasse 21, CH-6048 Horw, Switzerland
2
CR Energie GmbH, Z.I. l’Epine 7, CH-1868 Collombey, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Renewable Energy Sources in Buildings)
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Abstract

With the increasing adoption of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), concerns arise about potential glare. While recommended criteria to assess glare exist, it is challenging to apply these in the spatial and temporal domains and communicate the complex data to planning authorities and clients. This paper presents a new computational workflow using annual daylight simulation, material modelling using bi-directional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) and image-based postprocessing to obtain 3-dimensional renderings of cumulative annual irradiance and glare duration on the built environment. The annual daylight simulation considers relevant sun positions in high temporal resolution (15-min timesteps) and measured BSDFs to model different PV materials. The postprocessing includes a relative irradiance visualisation comparing the impact of a proposed PV proportional to a reference material. It also includes a new spatio-temporal workflow to assess the glare duration based on recommended thresholds. This workflow is demonstrated with a case study of a proposed PV roof for a church, assessing the glare potential of two different PV materials. The visualisations indicate glare durations well below the thresholds with satinated PVs, and in noncritical zones outside observer positions with standard PVs. Thus the proposed PV roof does not cause any disturbing glare. View Full-Text
Keywords: building integrated photovoltaics; annual daylight simulation; reflection; Radiance; photon mapping; BSDF; HDR; image processing; feature detection building integrated photovoltaics; annual daylight simulation; reflection; Radiance; photon mapping; BSDF; HDR; image processing; feature detection
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Schregle, R.; Renken, C.; Wittkopf, S. Spatio-Temporal Visualisation of Reflections from Building Integrated Photovoltaics. Buildings 2018, 8, 101.

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