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Buildings 2017, 7(4), 86; doi:10.3390/buildings7040086

Two Methods for Normalisation of Measured Energy Performance—Testing of a Net-Zero Energy Building in Sweden

Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Building Design, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund, Sweden
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Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 21 September 2017 / Accepted: 5 October 2017 / Published: 13 October 2017
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Abstract

An increasing demand for energy-efficient buildings has led to an increasing focus on predicted energy performance once a building is in use. Many studies have identified a performance gap between predicted energy use and actual measured energy use once buildings are in the user phase. However, none of the identified studies normalise measured energy use for both internal and external deviating boundary conditions. This study uses a Net-zero energy building (Net ZEB) building in Sweden to test two different approaches to the normalisation of measured energy use—static and dynamic methods. The normalisation of energy use for a ground source heat pump reduces the performance gap from 12% to 1–5%, depending on the method of normalisation. The normalisation of energy from photovoltaic (PV) panels reduces the performance gap from 17% to 5%, regardless of the method used. The results show that normalisation is important in order to accurately determine the energy performance of buildings. The most important parameters are the indoor temperature and internal loads, which have the largest effect on normalisation in this case study. Furthermore, the case study shows that it is possible to build Net ZEB buildings with existing technologies in a Northern European climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: net-zero energy building; normalisation; energy performance; energy monitoring; performance gap net-zero energy building; normalisation; energy performance; energy monitoring; performance gap
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Berggren, B.; Wall, M. Two Methods for Normalisation of Measured Energy Performance—Testing of a Net-Zero Energy Building in Sweden. Buildings 2017, 7, 86.

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