Next Article in Journal
Valuation of Real Estate Investments through Fuzzy Logic
Next Article in Special Issue
Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates
Previous Article in Journal
Computational Combination of the Optical Properties of Fenestration Layers at High Directional Resolution
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of Vernacular Construction Techniques and Materials for Developing Zero-Energy Homes in Various Desert Climates
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Buildings 2017, 7(1), 25; doi:10.3390/buildings7010025

Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

1
Institute of Energy Efficient and Sustainable Design and Building, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstraße 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
2
Chair of Building Technology and Climate Responsive Design, Technical University of Munich, Arcisstraße 21, 80333 Munich, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francesco Guarino
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3598 KB, uploaded 16 March 2017]   |  

Abstract

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings). The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types. View Full-Text
Keywords: Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010); Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) Standard; non-residential buildings; highly technically installed buildings; energy balance Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010); Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) Standard; non-residential buildings; highly technically installed buildings; energy balance
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Keltsch, M.; Lang, W.; Auer, T. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA. Buildings 2017, 7, 25.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Buildings EISSN 2075-5309 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top