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Buildings, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2015), Pages 736-1104

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Open AccessReview Tall Buildings and Elevators: A Review of Recent Technological Advances
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 1070-1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5031070
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 1 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 17 September 2015
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Abstract
Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of
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Efficient vertical mobility is a critical component of tall building development and construction. This paper investigates recent advances in elevator technology and examines their impact on tall building development. It maps out, organizes, and collates complex and scattered information on multiple aspects of elevator design, and presents them in an accessible and non-technical discourse. Importantly, the paper contextualizes recent technological innovations by examining their implementations in recent major projects including One World Trade Center in New York; Shanghai Tower in Shanghai; Burj Khalifa in Dubai; Kingdom Tower in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; and the green retrofit project of the Empire State Building in New York. Further, the paper discusses future vertical transportation models including a vertical subway concept, a space lift, and electromagnetic levitation technology. As these new technological advancements in elevator design empower architects to create new forms and shapes of large-scale, mixed-use developments, this paper concludes by highlighting the need for interdisciplinary research in incorporating elevators in skyscrapers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Towers: Technology, Sustainability, and Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle Human Body Exergy Balance: Numerical Analysis of an Indoor Thermal Environment of a Passive Wooden Room in Summer
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 1055-1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5031055
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 14 September 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (643 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output) accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental
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To obtain a basic understanding of the resultant changes in the human body exergy balance (input, consumption, storage, and output) accompanying outdoor air temperature fluctuations, a “human body system and a built environmental system” coupled with numerical analysis was conducted. The built environmental system assumed a wooden room equipped with passive cooling strategies, such as thermal insulation and solar shading devices. It was found that in the daytime, the cool radiation exergy emitted by surrounding surfaces, such as walls increased the rate of human body exergy consumption, whereas the warm radiant exergy emitted by the surrounding surfaces at night decreased the rate of human body exergy consumption. The results suggested that the rates and proportions of the different components in the exergy balance equation (exergy input, consumption, storage, and output) vary according to the outdoor temperature and humidity conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adaptive Thermal Comfort in Japanese Houses during the Summer Season: Behavioral Adaptation and the Effect of Humidity
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 1037-1054; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5031037
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 29 August 2015 / Accepted: 29 August 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract
In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have
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In order to clarify effect of humidity on the room temperatures reported to be comfortable, an occupant thermal comfort and behavior survey was conducted for five summers in the living rooms and bedrooms of residences in the Kanto region of Japan. We have collected 13,525 thermal comfort votes from over 239 residents of 120 homes, together with corresponding measurements of room temperature and humidity of the air. The residents were generally well-satisfied with the thermal environment of their houses, with or without the use of air-conditioning, and thus were well-adapted to their thermal conditions. The humidity was found to have very little direct effect on the comfort temperature. However, the comfort temperature was strongly related to the reported skin moisture. Behavioral adaptation such as window opening and fan use increase air movement and improve thermal comfort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Investigation on Hourly and Monthly Thermal Comfort in the Humid Tropics of Malaysia
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 1025-1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5031025
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 2 September 2015 / Accepted: 6 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract
Investigations on hourly and monthly indoor neutral temperature variations in the humid tropics are limited in literature. In Malaysia, the variation of hourly outdoor mean temperature is slightly higher than the monthly mean temperature. Consequently, this leads to the hypothesis that the variation
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Investigations on hourly and monthly indoor neutral temperature variations in the humid tropics are limited in literature. In Malaysia, the variation of hourly outdoor mean temperature is slightly higher than the monthly mean temperature. Consequently, this leads to the hypothesis that the variation of hourly neutral temperatures might be higher than the monthly neutral temperatures. Understanding the impact of hourly and monthly temperature variation on thermal comfort will certainly provide the design direction of future indoor environments. In this study, extensive measurements from residential buildings were used to investigate the observed variation. Linear regression and Griffiths methods were explored for analyzing the results. There was almost no variation on hourly and monthly neutral temperatures within the range under study. Further research is highly recommended due to the limited data collection and the limitations of the employed methods. It is highly advised to further investigate the hourly temperature variation on thermal comfort during nighttime and early morning. This is for an accurate interpretation of the results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Life-Cycle Energy Implications of Downtown High-Rise vs. Suburban Low-Rise Living: An Overview and Quantitative Case Study for Chicago
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 1003-1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5031003
Received: 30 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 7 September 2015
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Abstract
It is commonly accepted that the concentration of people in high-density urban city centers, which are typically dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located close to public transit systems, offers greater overall energy efficiency and lower life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded
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It is commonly accepted that the concentration of people in high-density urban city centers, which are typically dominated by medium- and high-rise buildings located close to public transit systems, offers greater overall energy efficiency and lower life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions than lower-density expanded suburbs, which are dominated by low-rise single-family buildings and larger per-person automobile travel requirements. However, few studies have combined quantitative analyses of the life-cycle energy use of both buildings and transportation in both urban and suburban areas, especially in American cities. This work uses a variety of data sources to provide a quantitative comparison of the life-cycle energy consumption associated with residential life (including buildings, transportation, and supporting infrastructure) in prototypical downtown high-rises and suburban low-rises in and around Chicago, IL. We estimate that downtown high-rise living in Chicago, IL accounts for approximately 25% more life-cycle energy per person per year than suburban low-rise living, on average, contrary to some common beliefs (best estimates were ~141 and ~113 GJ/person/year, respectively). Building operational energy use was found to be the largest contributor of the total life-cycle energy in both the downtown high-rise and suburban low-rise cases, followed by vehicle operational energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Towers: Technology, Sustainability, and Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle Quantifying Change in Buildings in a Future Climate and Their Effect on Energy Systems
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 985-1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030985
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 25 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
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Abstract
Projected climate change is likely to have a significant impact on a range of energy systems. When a building is the centre of that system, a changing climate will affect the energy system in several ways. Firstly, the energy demand of the building
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Projected climate change is likely to have a significant impact on a range of energy systems. When a building is the centre of that system, a changing climate will affect the energy system in several ways. Firstly, the energy demand of the building will be altered. Taken across the entire building stock, and placed in context of technological and behavioural changes over the same timescale, this can have implications for important parameters such as peak demand and load factors of energy requirement. The performance of demand-side, distribution/transmission and supply-side technologies can also alter as a result of changing temperatures. With such uncertainty, a flexible approach is required for ensuring that this whole energy system is robust for a wide range of future scenarios. Therefore, building design must have a standardised and systematic approach for integrating climate change into the overall energy assessment of a building (or buildings), understanding the implications for the larger energy network. Based on the work of the Low Carbon Futures (LCF) and Adaptation and Resilience In Energy Systems (ARIES) projects, this paper overviews some of the risks that might be linked to a changing climate in relation to provision and use of energy in buildings. The UK is used as a case-study but the outputs are demonstrated to be of relevance, and the tools applicable, to other countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Envelope Design and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle Summer Thermal Comfort and Self-Shading Geometries in Passivhaus Dwellings: A Pilot Study Using Future UK Climates
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 964-984; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030964
Received: 16 July 2015 / Revised: 20 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
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Abstract
This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use
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This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building shape to self-protect itself. Dynamic simulation modelling software was used to test a range of different inclined façades with regards to their effectiveness in reducing overheating risk. The research found that implementing a tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating for current UK climates, but with some consequences for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of thermal discomfort overheating, particularly by the 2080s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Design for Comfort and Users)
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Open AccessReview A Review of Psychological Literature on the Health and Wellbeing Benefits of Biophilic Design
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 948-963; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030948
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 19 August 2015 / Published: 25 August 2015
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Abstract
Biophilic design has received increasing attention as a design philosophy in recent years. This review paper focused on the three Biophilic design categories as proposed by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese in “The Practice of Biophilic Design”. Psychological, peer reviewed literature supporting the
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Biophilic design has received increasing attention as a design philosophy in recent years. This review paper focused on the three Biophilic design categories as proposed by Stephen Kellert and Elizabeth Calabrese in “The Practice of Biophilic Design”. Psychological, peer reviewed literature supporting the benefits of Biophilic design was searched for through the lens of restorative environments. Results indicate that there exists much evidence supporting certain attributes of Biophilic design (such as the presence of natural elements), while empirical evidence for other attributes (such as the use of natural materials or processes) is lacking. The review concludes with a call for more research on restorative environments and Biophilic design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Building Environment on Health and Well-Being)
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Open AccessArticle Configuration of Green Spaces for Urban Heat Island Mitigation and Future Building Energy Conservation in Hanoi Master Plan 2030
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 933-947; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030933
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
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Abstract
The study aims to assess the urban heat island (UHI) effects in the city under the present land use conditions as well as those conditions proposed by the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 through numerical simulation, using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). Furthermore, this
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The study aims to assess the urban heat island (UHI) effects in the city under the present land use conditions as well as those conditions proposed by the Hanoi Master Plan 2030 through numerical simulation, using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). Furthermore, this paper assesses additional land use scenarios with different spatial and green space configurations. The results show that the implementation of the master plan does not significantly affect the peak air temperature in the built-up areas (approximately 1 °C higher at the maximum). However, high temperature areas, with temperature of 40–41 °C, would expand widely over the new built-up areas. On the other hand, the nocturnal air temperature would increase by up to 2–3 °C over the newly expanded built-up areas. The number of hotspots increased further when the strategic green spaces in the master plan were not taken into account. However, the cooling effect of the strategic green spaces did not reach the existing city center sufficiently because the green spaces are located far from the city center. The large and centralized green spaces proposed in the master plan were seen to be insufficient to mitigate UHIs compared to the equally distributed green spaces. Moreover, the greater reduction of hotspot areas by up to 56.5% was seen when the mixed forest is employed as the land cover in the green spaces. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Comfort Studies in Naturally Ventilated Buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 917-932; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030917
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 11 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 July 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract
Many thermal comfort studies have been conducted in offices, classrooms and dwellings, but few in public buildings such as cathedrals, museums and markets. A recent thermal comfort study has been conducted in three naturally ventilated (NV) buildings, a cathedral, a museum and a
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Many thermal comfort studies have been conducted in offices, classrooms and dwellings, but few in public buildings such as cathedrals, museums and markets. A recent thermal comfort study has been conducted in three naturally ventilated (NV) buildings, a cathedral, a museum and a market, in Jakarta, between March and April 2014. There is a curiosity as to whether people doing slightly different activities with slightly different clothing insulation values, in different building types, might have different comfort temperatures. Approximately the same number of subjects (respondents) participated in the study of each building. Using the same monitoring equipment, results of this study show that subjects’ comfort temperatures were found to be similar in all of the buildings; however, it was found that the spread of the subjects’ comfort range in the three buildings was significantly different. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Design for Comfort and Users)
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Open AccessArticle BIM Guidelines Inform Facilities Management Databases: A Case Study over Time
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 899-916; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030899
Received: 10 July 2015 / Revised: 6 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
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Abstract
A building information model (BIM) contains data that can be accessed and exported for other uses during the lifetime of the building especially for facilities management (FM) and operations. Working under the guidance of well-designed BIM guidelines to insure completeness and compatibility with
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A building information model (BIM) contains data that can be accessed and exported for other uses during the lifetime of the building especially for facilities management (FM) and operations. Working under the guidance of well-designed BIM guidelines to insure completeness and compatibility with FM software, architects and contractors can deliver an information rich data model that is valuable to the client. Large owners such as universities often provide these detailed guidelines and deliverable requirements to their building teams. Investigation of the University of Southern California (USC) Facilities Management Service’s (FMS) website showed a detailed plan including standards, file names, parameter lists, and other requirements of BIM data, which were specifically designated for facilities management use, as deliverables on new construction projects. Three critical details were also unearthed in the reading of these documents: Revit was the default BIM software; COBie was adapted to help meet facilities management goals; and EcoDomus provided a display of the collected data viewed through Navisworks. Published accounts about the Cinema Arts Complex developed with and under these guidelines reported positive results. Further examination with new projects underway reveal the rapidly changing relational database landscape evident in the new USC “Project Record Revit Requirement Execution Plan (PRxP)”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue BIM in Building Lifecycle)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Agile Workspace and Remote Working on Experiences of Privacy, Crowding and Satisfaction
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 880-898; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030880
Received: 15 June 2015 / Revised: 8 July 2015 / Accepted: 30 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
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Abstract
Occupant density is an important and basic metric of space use efficiency. It affects user experience of privacy, crowding and satisfaction. The effect of agile working has been two fold. Firstly, offices have an increasing range of workspace settings such as break out
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Occupant density is an important and basic metric of space use efficiency. It affects user experience of privacy, crowding and satisfaction. The effect of agile working has been two fold. Firstly, offices have an increasing range of workspace settings such as break out space, collaborative space and contemplative space in contrast to the traditional workspace settings of assigned desks and formal meeting rooms. Secondly, office workers have become increasingly mobile as they are able to work from a greater variety of locations both in and out of their main place of work. This study asks whether workers who occupy agile workspaces and those with greater mobility experience privacy differently from workers with more conventional offices and work patterns. The experience of privacy can be considered in terms of retreat from people, control of information flow and control of interactions. Our results show that agile workspaces improve the ability to control information compared with open plan offices. It was also found that highly mobile workers are more sensitive to the negative effects of interacting with people. From this a taxonomy of offices is defined in terms of the features that contribute to the experience of privacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Building Environment on Health and Well-Being)
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Impact of Complex Healthcare Features on Construction Waste Generation
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 860-879; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030860
Received: 27 March 2015 / Revised: 19 July 2015 / Accepted: 19 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
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Abstract
Over recent years, the British government has been investing billions of pounds in new and refurbished healthcare building projects. With the rapid growth in investment in healthcare infrastructure throughout the United Kingdom, a number of sustainability issues have been created, including construction waste
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Over recent years, the British government has been investing billions of pounds in new and refurbished healthcare building projects. With the rapid growth in investment in healthcare infrastructure throughout the United Kingdom, a number of sustainability issues have been created, including construction waste generation. There is growing consensus in the literature that healthcare buildings are “complex”, due to their unique functional and operational features, and are thus more prone to generating larger amounts of construction waste. However, no significant research has been undertaken to identify the relationships between complex features in building projects and construction waste production, which is the focus of this study. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted among healthcare clients, contractors, and architects. A life cycle approach has been adopted in this study to holistically assess and evaluate the effects of complexities with construction waste causes in healthcare projects. The findings reveal that the complex shapes and sizes of rooms, and mechanical and electrical services, significantly impact waste caused by such things as: incomplete briefing, incorrect drawing details, complex designs, non-standard designs, and inadequate communication and coordination in the pre-design, design, and construction stages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Buildings: Design for Comfort and Users)
Open AccessArticle Emerging Towers in Bayraklı: Sustainability as a Branding Strategy or a Tool for Local Development?
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 834-859; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030834
Received: 14 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 5 August 2015
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Abstract
Sustainability and eco-friendly towers have been among the most discussed topics of contemporary high-rise building design. High-rise buildings have been an important part of the modern economy with their concentration of human capital and branding value for the urban context. In addition, during
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Sustainability and eco-friendly towers have been among the most discussed topics of contemporary high-rise building design. High-rise buildings have been an important part of the modern economy with their concentration of human capital and branding value for the urban context. In addition, during the recent years, to address the problems of sprawl, environmental, and ecological concerns, sustainable high-rise building design has gained further significance and visibility in architecture and planning literature. In existing literature, sustainability of high-rises is defined mainly through ecological design and green architecture principles in individual building scale. However, sustainability in the case of high-rises remains an ill-defined term, as there is neglect of further long term effects of these buildings on the social, cultural, economic, and resiliency contexts of cities. When not integrated with the broader urban context, sustainability falls into the gap to be perceived as “greenwash”, which stands for a superficially-employed concept used as a fashionable branding strategy. Within this general framework, this study will examine the emerging towers in Bayrakli, Izmir, which is designated by the local government as a high-rise development zone. The study will focus on high-rise buildings (completed and under construction) in relation to the perception of sustainability and question whether or not sustainability is used as a greenwash branding strategy or a contextual element that is well-embedded in architectural design process and urban planning decisions. The method of research will be a descriptive case study through semi-structured interviews with the design team and real estate professionals of the buildings, as well as media analysis and consideration of the local municipality reports about Bayrakli. The results indicate that sustainability has become a principle embraced and advertised in the building scale as an environmental concern more than it is embraced in the urban and social context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Towers: Technology, Sustainability, and Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle Supertall Asia/Middle East: Technological Responses and Contextual Impacts
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 814-833; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030814
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 24 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
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Abstract
Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings,
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Supported by rapid economic growth, major cities in Asia and the Middle East have been rising as new centers for tall buildings. This article reviews the state of tall building developments in Asian and Middle Eastern countries with an emphasis on supertall buildings, with their greater urban and global impacts. Focusing primarily on physical construction, this article examines technological responses for building tall in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts. The architectural transformation and globalization of what was once called the “American Building Type” in Asian and Middle Eastern countries is studied. Sustainable design technology transfer and adjustment in Asian and Middle Eastern climates are presented. Further, future prospects on supertall design in Asian and Middle Eastern contexts are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Towers: Technology, Sustainability, and Resilience)
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Comfort Temperature in Indonesia, an Initial Step to Reduce Cooling Energy Consumption
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 802-813; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030802
Received: 4 June 2015 / Revised: 7 July 2015 / Accepted: 10 July 2015 / Published: 21 July 2015
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Abstract
Indonesia has no reliable thermal comfort standard that is based on research works. The current national standard (SNI 6390:2011) states only a single range of comfort temperature that is 25.5 °C Ta, with a range of +1.5 °C Ta.
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Indonesia has no reliable thermal comfort standard that is based on research works. The current national standard (SNI 6390:2011) states only a single range of comfort temperature that is 25.5 °C Ta, with a range of +1.5 °C Ta. Previous thermal studies in a number of different buildings in Indonesia showed that the neutral (comfort) temperatures of subjects were about 27 to 28 °C, which is higher than the values stated in the standard. As a big country with various ambient temperatures, Indonesian needs a better and more reliable thermal comfort predictor which can be applied properly across the country. This study is an attempt to propose an initial Indonesian thermal predictor, in the form of a simple equation, which could predict comfort temperatures properly across the country. Reanalysing the previous comfort studies in Indonesia, a simple regression equation is constructed as to be used as the initial Indonesian comfort predictor. Using this predictor, the comfort temperatures in a lowland or coastal cities like Jakarta is found to be higher than the current comfort standard. It is expected that this predictor would help to provide a better indoor thermal environment and at the same reduce the cooling energy in air conditioning (AC) building, thus reducing a building’s carbon emissions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Mitigative Potential of Urban Environments and Their Microclimates
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 783-801; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030783
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 20 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
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Abstract
Cities play a crucial role in climate change: More than 50% of the growing population lives in cities producing most of the global GDP but also 78% of greenhouse gases (GHG) responsible for climate change. Moreover, due to their highly modified land-use and
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Cities play a crucial role in climate change: More than 50% of the growing population lives in cities producing most of the global GDP but also 78% of greenhouse gases (GHG) responsible for climate change. Moreover, due to their highly modified land-use and intensive activities, cities are at the forefront of the most rapid environmental and climatic change ever experienced by mankind. Yet, cities’ potential to mitigate both climate change and their own environment is underexploited. This paper explores ideas related to the potential of urban environments to modify their microclimates, reflecting on the overlapping potential between mitigative and adaptive actions. These actions in cities can not only tackle some of the largest contributing factors to global climate change but offer short- to medium-term benefits that could drive more immediate socioeconomic and behavioral changes. This review proposes and discusses a new preliminary definition of urban environments as microclimate modifiers—Mitigative urban Environments and Microclimates (MitEM)—and calls for further research into: (a) inter-connecting the full range of mitigative and adaptive initiatives already being undertaken in many cities and maximizing their input systemically; (b) developing a common and holistic definition of MitEM; (c) promoting its uptake at policy level and amongst the key stakeholders, based on its social and public value beyond the environmental. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Buildings, Design and Climate Change)
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Open AccessArticle Moisture Performance of Energy-Efficient and Conventional Wood-Frame Wall Assemblies in a Mixed-Humid Climate
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 759-782; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030759
Received: 27 April 2015 / Revised: 22 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 1 July 2015
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Abstract
Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and
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Long-term moisture performance is a critical consideration for design and construction of building envelopes in energy-efficient buildings, yet field measurements of moisture characteristics for highly insulated wood-frame walls in mixed-humid climates are lacking. Temperature, relative humidity, and moisture content of wood framing and oriented strand board (OSB) structural panel sheathing were measured over a period from mid-November 2011 through March 2013 in both north- and south-facing orientations in test structures near Washington, DC, USA. Wall configurations varied in exterior cladding, water-resistive barrier, level of cavity insulation, presence of exterior continuous insulation, and interior vapor retarder. The combination of high interior humidity and high vapor permeance of painted gypsum board led to significant moisture accumulation in OSB sheathing during winter in walls without a vapor retarder. In contrast, wintertime moisture accumulation was not significant with an interior kraft vapor retarder. Extruded polystyrene exterior insulation had a predictable effect on wall cavity temperature but a marginal impact on OSB moisture content in walls with vinyl siding and interior kraft vapor retarder. Hygrothermal simulations approximately captured the timing of seasonal changes in OSB moisture content, differences between north- and south-facing walls, and differences between walls with and without an interior kraft vapor retarder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Building Envelope Design and Performance)
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Open AccessEditorial Pathways to Low Carbon Building: Reflection on the Special Issue
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 751-758; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030751
Received: 18 June 2015 / Revised: 18 June 2015 / Accepted: 23 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
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Abstract
In 2014, this journal invited me to edit a special issue on low carbon building. We put out a call for papers that offered new perspectives, crossing boundaries between technical and social research approaches. The six papers selected and published have emanated from
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In 2014, this journal invited me to edit a special issue on low carbon building. We put out a call for papers that offered new perspectives, crossing boundaries between technical and social research approaches. The six papers selected and published have emanated from university departments and research centres of Engineering, Architecture, Energy, Design, Urban Planning, Environment, and Sustainable Building. Together they represent a unique and highly readable snapshot of the multiple approaches to this crucial issue—but they also do more; read as a whole they allow the reader to draw new conclusions about the way forward. This editorial draws together and reflects on the six papers, concluding with recommendations for urgent and vital actions for policy makers, professionals and academics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low Carbon Building Design)
Open AccessConcept Paper Correlating Stiffness and Shear Lag Behavior with Brace Configuration of Tall Truss Tube Buildings
Buildings 2015, 5(3), 736-750; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings5030736
Received: 8 April 2015 / Revised: 29 May 2015 / Accepted: 1 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
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Abstract
As the height of buildings increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect
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As the height of buildings increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube in tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of the bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of a bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load, is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominant lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of Practice IS 875 Part 3. For analysis purposes, the SAP2000 software program is used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eco-Towers: Technology, Sustainability, and Resilience)
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