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Buildings, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 300-461

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Research

Open AccessArticle Manchester Civil Justice Centre: Procuring and Managing an Institutional Building with a Mixed Mode Ventilation System—A Case for Post-Occupancy Evaluation
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 300-323; doi:10.3390/buildings3020300
Received: 1 February 2013 / Revised: 14 March 2013 / Accepted: 29 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Manchester Civil Justice Centre is a striking contemporary 14 storey court building which has won awards for many different aspects of its design, construction and sustainability. From November 2002 to July 2005, the author was a key member of Denton Corker Marshall’s London
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Manchester Civil Justice Centre is a striking contemporary 14 storey court building which has won awards for many different aspects of its design, construction and sustainability. From November 2002 to July 2005, the author was a key member of Denton Corker Marshall’s London project team having responsibility for key areas of design development, integration of technology and sustainable design including the East elevation’s “environmental veil”. This paper tracks the procurement of the building, describing its low energy features and their performance in practice. The paper reviews the low carbon elements of the design (daylight and natural ventilation systems) in the context of similar buildings and the buildings operational performance. The building has a mixed mode ventilation system which is managed centrally; the paper describes the ongoing relationship between the Facilities Management and the building’s users and their expectations of comfort and offers an explanation as to why the building’s energy performance is not as good as predicted at design stage. A case is made that this building is a significant example of low energy design and would form a good example for a detailed Post Occupancy Evaluation. The energy performance of the building could be studied in more detail to encourage the users (judges, staff and the public) to improve the building’s energy performance and to share knowledge within the construction industry. Institutional and commercial barriers to the more mainstream adoption of Post Occupancy Evaluation are discussed with respect to the Manchester Civil Justice Centre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Design and Construction)
Open AccessArticle Elevating Mallarmé’s Shipwreck
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 324-340; doi:10.3390/buildings3020324
Received: 31 January 2013 / Revised: 22 March 2013 / Accepted: 25 March 2013 / Published: 11 April 2013
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Abstract
This paper discusses collage as a means to explore spatial ideas. It concerns the practice of drawing-as-research, the spatiality of drawing and the nature of paper. It questions the homogeneity of digital tools in contemporary practice. It is introduced with a discussion of
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This paper discusses collage as a means to explore spatial ideas. It concerns the practice of drawing-as-research, the spatiality of drawing and the nature of paper. It questions the homogeneity of digital tools in contemporary practice. It is introduced with a discussion of architectural representation and space with a historical trajectory. It questions an understanding of space-as-geometry and discusses the potential role of non-perspectival drawings and non-digital drawing in current practice. The collage studies focus on the late nineteenth century. Working in the tradition of the collage novel, and with original engravings from the popular French newspaper Le Grande Illustré (1904), the collages work with the thematic structure and spatiality of Stéphane Mallarmé’s revolutionary poem Un Coup de Dés written a few years earlier. In this paper, the spatial and thematic content of Mallarmé’s poem are visualized for the first time. The conclusions of this study concern the role of non-digital drawings in the profession, and the potential of creative “paper technologies” to engage the material imagination at the early stages of a design process. It opens new ground as a study of the spatiality of text, the relationship between dramaturgy and architecture and on the nature of topological drawings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Representation in Architecture)
Open AccessArticle Photovoltaic Design Integration at Battery Park City, New York
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 341-356; doi:10.3390/buildings3020341
Received: 29 November 2012 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 18 February 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (920 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is a study of the photovoltaic (PV) systems in the buildings’ design of the Battery Park City (BPC) residential development, in New York. The BPC development is the first in the US to mandate, through the 2000 Battery Park City Authority
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This paper is a study of the photovoltaic (PV) systems in the buildings’ design of the Battery Park City (BPC) residential development, in New York. The BPC development is the first in the US to mandate, through the 2000 Battery Park City Authority (BPCA) guidelines, the use of PV as a renewable energy generation system in its individual buildings. The scope of this study is to show how PV is integrated in the BPC buildings’ design process, and what can be learned for future PV applications. The study draws directly from the design decision making sources, investigating on the concerns and suggestions of the BPCA director of sustainability and the BPC architects and PV installers. It attempts to contrast a theoretical approach that sees PV as a technology to domesticate in architecture and bring, through grounded research, PV industry closer to the architectural design process. The findings of the study suggest that while stringent environmental mandates help, in the short term, to kick-start the use of PV systems in buildings, it is the recognition of the PV’s primary role as energy provider, its assimilation in the building industry, and its use in a less confining building program that allows for its evolution in architecture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Design and Construction)
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Undisciplined Drawing
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 357-379; doi:10.3390/buildings3020357
Received: 2 March 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2013 / Accepted: 12 April 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (10819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
If, as I have argued elsewhere, architecture and archaeology share homological correspondences of common origin thus enabling analogical relationships of creative juxtaposition, then it becomes possible to characterise those correspondences through their representational drawing practices as they are embodied in the products of
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If, as I have argued elsewhere, architecture and archaeology share homological correspondences of common origin thus enabling analogical relationships of creative juxtaposition, then it becomes possible to characterise those correspondences through their representational drawing practices as they are embodied in the products of those practices and in the instruments which make those products. This characterisation is the subject of this paper, first by examining architecture and archaeology as disciplined suites of practices nurtured and developed within the constraints of their parent profession, and then through the examination of particular drawing techniques and instruments—techniques and instruments either common to each discipline or abandoned by them. These commonalities and abandonments reveal their undisciplinary nature. This loosening of disciplinary constraint is further examined through the analysis of “undisciplined drawing” case studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Representation in Architecture)
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Thermal Simulation Tool for Building and Its Interoperability through the Building Information Modeling (BIM) Platform
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 380-398; doi:10.3390/buildings3020380
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (582 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes potential challenges and opportunities for using thermal simulation tools to optimize building performance. After reviewing current trends in thermal simulation, it outlines major criteria for the evaluation of building thermal simulation tools based on specifications and capabilities in interoperability. Details
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This paper describes potential challenges and opportunities for using thermal simulation tools to optimize building performance. After reviewing current trends in thermal simulation, it outlines major criteria for the evaluation of building thermal simulation tools based on specifications and capabilities in interoperability. Details are discussed including workflow of data exchange of multiple thermal analyses such as the BIM-based application. The present analysis focuses on selected thermal simulation tools that provide functionalities to exchange data with other tools in order to obtain a picture of its basic work principles and to identify selection criteria for generic thermal tools in BIM. Significances and barriers to integration design with BIM and building thermal simulation tools are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Directions in Building Information Modeling)
Open AccessArticle Coupled Outdoor and Indoor Airflow Prediction for Buildings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 399-421; doi:10.3390/buildings3020399
Received: 15 March 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1511 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for simultaneously predicting the outdoor and indoor airflows of single-cell and multi-storey buildings. Empirical models and two existing wind tunnel experimental data are used for validation. This study
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The objective of this study is to investigate the accuracy of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for simultaneously predicting the outdoor and indoor airflows of single-cell and multi-storey buildings. Empirical models and two existing wind tunnel experimental data are used for validation. This study found that coupled CFD simulations provide sufficiently accurate airflow predictions and, in cases of buildings with complex façade treatments, accurately accounts for changes in ventilation performance, which may be impossible using empirical models. This study concludes that coupled CFD simulations can generally be used to predict ventilation performance in small and large buildings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Analysis of Damage in Laminated Architectural Glazing Subjected to Wind Loading and Windborne Debris Impact
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 422-441; doi:10.3390/buildings3020422
Received: 28 March 2013 / Accepted: 14 May 2013 / Published: 22 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind loading and windborne debris (missile) impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings.
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Wind loading and windborne debris (missile) impact are the two primary mechanisms that result in window glazing damage during hurricanes. Wind-borne debris is categorized into two types: small hard missiles; such as roof gravel; and large soft missiles representing lumber from wood-framed buildings. Laminated architectural glazing (LAG) may be used in buildings where impact resistance is needed. The glass plies in LAG undergo internal damage before total failure. The bulk of the published work on this topic either deals with the stress and dynamic analyses of undamaged LAG or the total failure of LAG. The pre-failure damage response of LAG due to the combination of wind loading and windborne debris impact is studied. A continuum damage mechanics (CDM) based constitutive model is developed and implemented via an axisymmetric finite element code to study the failure and damage behavior of laminated architectural glazing subjected to combined loading of wind and windborne debris impact. The effect of geometric and material properties on the damage pattern is studied parametrically. Full article
Open AccessArticle Designing Buildings to Cope with Emergencies: Findings from Case Studies on Exit Preferences
Buildings 2013, 3(2), 442-461; doi:10.3390/buildings3020442
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 30 May 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (937 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Static information found in current building design guidance documents is not adequate to achieve efficient safety and security in public buildings during emergencies. There is a need to consider space characteristics and dynamic information related to building use, behavior and movement of users
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Static information found in current building design guidance documents is not adequate to achieve efficient safety and security in public buildings during emergencies. There is a need to consider space characteristics and dynamic information related to building use, behavior and movement of users in various circumstances, as well as their interactions with each other and with their immediate environment. This paper explores the building design issues associated with safety and security and focuses on the exit preferences of building occupants during emergency evacuations. Exit preferences of users in public buildings were investigated using two types of case studies: Observation Case Studies (OCS) and Simulation Case Studies (SCS). The findings from the associated questionnaires and logistic analysis of the OCS data showed that “distance” and “familiarity” with the building were the two most important factors for exit preference in office buildings. It was also found that imbalanced use of exit doors considerably increases the evacuation time. Finally, further research study opportunities are discussed. SCS underscored the difference between evacuation assumptions in current building guidance compared with the results of real life experiments. Full article

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