Next Article in Journal
Prospects for a Sports Ombudsman in Canada
Previous Article in Journal
Online Shaming and the Right to Privacy
Previous Article in Special Issue
Precedents, Patterns and Puzzles: Feminist Reflections on the First Women Lawyers
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Laws 2017, 6(1), 4; doi:10.3390/laws6010004

Enfranchised Minors: Women as People in the Middle East after the 2011 Arab Uprisings

Faculty of Business, Languages, and Social Sciences, Political Science Section, Østfold University College, 1757 Halden, Norway
Academic Editor: Rosemary Auchmuty
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 29 January 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [289 KB, uploaded 10 March 2017]

Abstract

The civic status of female citizens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is conceptualized as “enfranchised minorhood” which reflects the confined position of adult women as legal minors under the trusteeship of male kin in family law, criminal law, and nationality law. During and in the aftermath of the Uprisings that erupted throughout MENA in 2011, female lawyers in Morocco, Lebanon, and Kuwait allied with women’s groups and pressured for reforms in patriarchal state laws. By 2015, reforms were manifest in criminal law; incremental in family law; and absent in nationality law. Theoretical conclusions based on comparative analysis of societal pressures in three states indicate that long historical trajectories are imperative for substantiating the expansion of female citizenship following the 2011 Uprisings. Additionally, the civic status of women in the MENA region is being strengthened under authoritarian monarchical rule in Kuwait and Morocco. A third finding is that pressures for reform have more visible reverberations in legal spheres with a clerical imprint such as family law and criminal law, while strengthened pressures in a secular legal sphere such as nationality law have been opposed more forcefully five years after the Uprisings. View Full-Text
Keywords: family law; nationality law; penal code; female lawyers; female citizenship; Morocco; Lebanon; Kuwait family law; nationality law; penal code; female lawyers; female citizenship; Morocco; Lebanon; Kuwait
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maktabi, R. Enfranchised Minors: Women as People in the Middle East after the 2011 Arab Uprisings. Laws 2017, 6, 4.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Laws EISSN 2075-471X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top