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Metals 2018, 8(8), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8080643

Microstructure, Solidification Texture, and Thermal Stability of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion

1
Department of Engineering and Physics, Karlstad University, SE-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden
2
Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Bloemfontein, Central University of Technology, Free State 9300, South Africa
3
Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
4
Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 1 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 15 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Ferrous Materials)
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Abstract

This article overviews the scientific results of the microstructural features observed in 316 L stainless steel manufactured by the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) method obtained by the authors, and discusses the results with respect to the recently published literature. Microscopic features of the LPBF microstructure, i.e., epitaxial nucleation, cellular structure, microsegregation, porosity, competitive colony growth, and solidification texture, were experimentally studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, diffraction methods, and atom probe tomography. The influence of laser power and laser scanning speed on the microstructure was discussed in the perspective of governing the microstructure by controlling the process parameters. It was shown that the three-dimensional (3D) zig-zag solidification texture observed in the LPBF 316 L was related to the laser scanning strategy. The thermal stability of the microstructure was investigated under isothermal annealing conditions. It was shown that the cells formed at solidification started to disappear at about 800 °C, and that this process leads to a substantial decrease in hardness. Colony boundaries, nevertheless, were quite stable, and no significant grain growth was observed after heat treatment at 1050 °C. The observed experimental results are discussed with respect to the fundamental knowledge of the solidification processes, and compared with the existing literature data. View Full-Text
Keywords: 316 L stainless steel; laser powder bed fusion; cellular solidification; solidification texture; electron microscopy; thermal stability of microstructure 316 L stainless steel; laser powder bed fusion; cellular solidification; solidification texture; electron microscopy; thermal stability of microstructure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Krakhmalev, P.; Fredriksson, G.; Svensson, K.; Yadroitsev, I.; Yadroitsava, I.; Thuvander, M.; Peng, R. Microstructure, Solidification Texture, and Thermal Stability of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion. Metals 2018, 8, 643.

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