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Metals 2017, 7(7), 240; doi:10.3390/met7070240

Separation and Pre-Concentration of Pb and Cd in Water Samples Using 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT) and Their Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, King Saud University, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
2
Agilent Technologies, CP-11, Sector-8, Industrial Model Township, Manesar, Gurgaon 122051, India
3
Institute of Mass Spectrometer and Atmospheric Environment, Jinan University, No. 601 West Huangpu Avenue, Guangzhou 510632, China
4
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad 500007, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Determination and Removal)
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Abstract

A new method for the separation, pre-concentration and accurate determination of trace amounts of Pb and Cd in water samples using Amberlite XAD-16 resin functionalized with a new chelating ligand, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT), Amberlite XAD-16-HTT and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is reported in the present study. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to characterize the chelating resin. The effects of analytical parameters such as the pH of the medium, amount of adsorbent, type and volume of eluent, flow rate of the sample solution, volume of the sample solution, and matrix interference on the retention of metal ions were investigated. Also, 1 M HNO3 was used for the elution of the sorbed metals, and ICP-AES was used for the analysis of elutes offline. The results indicate that pH 5 is the optimum pH for the sorption of Pb and Cd ions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.16 and 0.22 μg/L for Pb and Cd, respectively, by applying a pre-concentration factor of 50. The method was validated using the international water reference material (NIST 1643e). The developed enrichment method has a high selectivity, sensitivity, and reproducibility; this method was successfully applied for the determination of Pb and Cd in surface water samples collected in Nellore District, Penner River belt as well as Bay of Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, India. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pb; Cd; 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione; Amberlite XAD-16; water sample; ICP-AES Pb; Cd; 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione; Amberlite XAD-16; water sample; ICP-AES
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, N.S.; Dharmendra, V.; Sreenivasulu, V.; Asif, M.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Balaram, V. Separation and Pre-Concentration of Pb and Cd in Water Samples Using 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione (HTT) and Their Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). Metals 2017, 7, 240.

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