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Metals 2017, 7(7), 235;

Design of U-Geometry Parameters Using Statistical Analysis Techniques in the U-Bending Process

Department of Tool and Materials Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok 10140, Thailand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 10 June 2017 / Published: 26 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Plastic Forming of Metals)


The various U-geometry parameters in the U-bending process result in processing difficulties in the control of the spring-back characteristic. In this study, the effects of U-geometry parameters, including channel width, bend angle, material thickness, tool radius, as well as workpiece length, and their design, were investigated using a combination of finite element method (FEM) simulation, and statistical analysis techniques. Based on stress distribution analyses, the FEM simulation results clearly identified the different bending mechanisms and effects of U-geometry parameters on the spring-back characteristic in the U-bending process, with and without pressure pads. The statistical analyses elucidated that the bend angle and channel width have a major influence in cases with and without pressure pads, respectively. The experiments were carried out to validate the FEM simulation results. Additionally, the FEM simulation results were in agreement with the experimental results, in terms of the bending forces and bending angles. View Full-Text
Keywords: U-bending; pad; finite element method; spring-back; analysis of variance (ANOVA) U-bending; pad; finite element method; spring-back; analysis of variance (ANOVA)

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Phanitwong, W.; Boochakul, U.; Thipprakmas, S. Design of U-Geometry Parameters Using Statistical Analysis Techniques in the U-Bending Process. Metals 2017, 7, 235.

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