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Metals, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2015), Pages 1770-2434

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Open AccessArticle Hot Ductility Loss in a Fe-Ni-Based Superalloy
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2428-2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042428
Received: 31 October 2015 / Revised: 29 November 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 21 December 2015
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Abstract
High temperature tensile tests have been conducted on samples of a Fe-Ni based superalloy, Incoloy A-286, and significant ductility loss has been observed at 1220 °C. Titanium-rich, thin-film-like phase has been found on the inter-granular facets of fracture surfaces. It appears that sulfur
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High temperature tensile tests have been conducted on samples of a Fe-Ni based superalloy, Incoloy A-286, and significant ductility loss has been observed at 1220 °C. Titanium-rich, thin-film-like phase has been found on the inter-granular facets of fracture surfaces. It appears that sulfur content of Ti-rich phase was higher than that of the matrix. At 1220 °C, liquation of Ti-rich phases has resulted in thin-film-like morphology along the grain boundary and caused the ductility loss during tensile deformation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Superalloys)
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Open AccessArticle Direct Aqueous Mineral Carbonation of Waste Slate Using Ammonium Salt Solutions
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2413-2427; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042413
Received: 18 October 2015 / Revised: 9 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
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Abstract
The carbonation of asbestos-containing waste slate using a direct aqueous mineral carbonation method was evaluated. Leaching and carbonation tests were conducted on asbestos-containing waste slate using ammonium salt (CH3COONH4, NH4NO3, and NH4HSO4) solutions at various concentrations. The CH3COONH4 solution had the highest Ca-leaching
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The carbonation of asbestos-containing waste slate using a direct aqueous mineral carbonation method was evaluated. Leaching and carbonation tests were conducted on asbestos-containing waste slate using ammonium salt (CH3COONH4, NH4NO3, and NH4HSO4) solutions at various concentrations. The CH3COONH4 solution had the highest Ca-leaching efficiency (17%–35%) and the NH4HSO4 solution had the highest Mg-leaching efficiency (7%–24%) at various solid dosages and solvent concentrations. The CaCO3 content of the reacted materials based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was approximately 10%–17% higher than that of the as-received material for the 1 M CH3COONH4 and the 1 M NH4HSO4 solutions. The carbonates were precipitated on the surface of chrysotile, which was contained in the waste slate reacted with CO2. These results imply that CO2 can be sequestered by a direct aqueous mineral carbonation using waste slate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometallurgy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characteristics of γ-Fe2O3/Polyaniline-Curcumin Composites
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2401-2412; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042401
Received: 18 November 2015 / Revised: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Superparamagnetic nanomaterials are showing great prospects in medical treatments with targeting medicines. A new conductive superparamagnetic nanocomposite, γ-Fe2O3/polyaniline-curcumin (γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin), was prepared by using the interaction between an amino group in polyaniline and a ketone group
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Superparamagnetic nanomaterials are showing great prospects in medical treatments with targeting medicines. A new conductive superparamagnetic nanocomposite, γ-Fe2O3/polyaniline-curcumin (γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin), was prepared by using the interaction between an amino group in polyaniline and a ketone group in curcumin. The γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin nanocomposite showed superparamagnetism (30 emu·g−1) and electrochemical activity, based on the results of magnetization curve and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) indicated that the particle size of γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin was between 10 and 50 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the γ-Fe2O3/PANI-curcumin nanocomposite, confirming that curcumin was immobilized into the γ-Fe2O3/PANI chain. This study provided an academic foundation for developing a new material for immobilizing an anticancer drug. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
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Open AccessEditorial Metallic Glasses
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2397-2400; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042397
Received: 15 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
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Abstract
Metallic glasses are a fascinating class of metallic materials that do not display long-range atomic order. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic Glasses) Printed Edition available
Open AccessEditorial Ultrafine-Grained Metals
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2393-2396; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042393
Received: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
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Abstract
Ultrafine-grained (UFG) metallic materials are at the cutting edge of modern materials science as they exhibit outstanding properties which make them very interesting for prospective structural or functional engineering applications. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine-grained Metals) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle A Simple Up-Scalable Thermal Treatment Method for Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2383-2392; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042383
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A simple thermal treatment method, utilizing only zinc nitrate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and deionized water, was used to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles, and their characteristics were investigated by various techniques. The TGA measurement demonstrated that the bulk of the capping agent PVP can be
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A simple thermal treatment method, utilizing only zinc nitrate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and deionized water, was used to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles, and their characteristics were investigated by various techniques. The TGA measurement demonstrated that the bulk of the capping agent PVP can be removed at temperatures higher than 500 °C and is consistent with the absence of the majority of PVP absorption peaks in the FT-IR spectra. The formation of almost pure ZnO nanoparticles was established by the presence of single absorption peak in the FT-IR spectra due to being only Zn–O bonds at calcination temperatures of 500 °C and above. The TEM images revealed that the nanoparticles have a spherical shape and the particle size increased from 60.1–83.1 nm with an increase in calcination temperatures from 500–600 °C. The XRD diffraction patterns indicated that the particles are of a wurzite lattice structure. The optical properties were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and it was found that the band gap of ZnO nanoparticles decreased from 3.249–3.239 eV with an increase in calcination temperature from 500–600 °C. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Galvanic Corrosion between Alloy 690 and Magnetite in Alkaline Aqueous Solutions
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2372-2382; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042372
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (650 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The galvanic corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 coupled with magnetite has been investigated in an alkaline solution at 30 °C and 60 °C using a potentiodynamic polarization method and a zero resistance ammeter. The positive current values were recorded in the galvanic couple
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The galvanic corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 coupled with magnetite has been investigated in an alkaline solution at 30 °C and 60 °C using a potentiodynamic polarization method and a zero resistance ammeter. The positive current values were recorded in the galvanic couple and the corrosion potential of Alloy 690 was relatively lower. These results indicate that Alloy 690 behaves as the anode of the pair. The galvanic coupling between Alloy 690 and magnetite increased the corrosion rate of Alloy 690. The temperature increase led to an increase in the extent of galvanic effect and a decrease in the stability of passive film. Galvanic effect between Alloy 690 and magnetite is proposed as an additional factor accelerating the corrosion rate of Alloy 690 steam generator tubing in secondary water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidation of Metals)
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Open AccessComment Comments on Lynch. Pyrrolyl Squaraines—Fifty Golden Years. Metals 2015, 5, 1349–1370
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2370-2371; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042370
Received: 7 December 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 14 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to the papers referenced in the main article [1]; [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Synthetic Metals)
Open AccessArticle Damage Analysis of a Ferritic SiMo Ductile Cast Iron Submitted to Tension and Compression Loadings in Temperature
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2351-2369; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042351
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
Tensile and compression tests were carried out on a ductile cast iron for temperatures up to 1073 K. The damage caused inside and around graphite nodules was evaluated as a function of the local equivalent plastic strain by using microstructural quantifications. The mechanical
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Tensile and compression tests were carried out on a ductile cast iron for temperatures up to 1073 K. The damage caused inside and around graphite nodules was evaluated as a function of the local equivalent plastic strain by using microstructural quantifications. The mechanical properties are strongly dependent on a temperature above 773 K. Concerning tensile behavior, an evolutional law issued from the Gurson model representing the void growth as a function of the deformation and temperature was successfully employed. It is demonstrated that the strain state and the temperature have a strong influence on the void growth function. In the case of compression tests, the temperature has a weak influence on the nodule deformation for temperatures lower than 773 K, and the mechanical behavior is driven by the viscoplastic properties of the ferrite. For higher temperatures, the mechanical properties in compression are progressively modified, since graphite nodules tend to remain spherical, and ferrite grains are severely deformed. A synthesis of the damage mechanisms is proposed in the studied range of temperature and plastic strain. It appears that the graphite nodule aspect ratio can be used as an indicator of the deformation under compression loading for temperatures ranging from room temperature to 673 K. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Forge-Hardened TiZr Null-Matrix Alloy for Neutron Scattering under Extreme Conditions
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2340-2350; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042340
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 2 December 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract
For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed
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For neutron scattering research that is performed under extreme conditions, such as high static pressures, high-strength metals that are transparent to the neutron beam are required. The diffraction of the neutron beam by the metal, which follows Bragg’s law, can be completely removed by alloying two metallic elements that have coherent scattering lengths with opposite signs. An alloy of Ti and Zr, which is known as a TiZr null-matrix alloy, is an ideal combination for such purposes. In this study, we increased the hardness of a TiZr null-matrix alloy via extensive mechanical deformation at high temperatures. We successfully used the resulting product in a high-pressure cell designed for high-static-pressure neutron scattering. This hardened TiZr null-matrix alloy may play a complementary role to normal TiZr alloy in future neutron scattering research under extreme conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Modeling of TiAl Alloy Grating by Investment Casting
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2328-2339; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042328
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract
The investment casting of TiAl alloys has become the most promising cost-effective technique for manufacturing TiAl components. This study aimed to investigate a series of problems associated with the investment casting of TiAl alloys. The mold filling and solidification of this casting model
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The investment casting of TiAl alloys has become the most promising cost-effective technique for manufacturing TiAl components. This study aimed to investigate a series of problems associated with the investment casting of TiAl alloys. The mold filling and solidification of this casting model were numerically simulated using ProCAST. Shrinkage porosity was quantitatively predicted by a built-in feeding criterion. The results obtained from the numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which were carried out on Vacuum Skull Furnace using an investment block mold. The investment casting of TiAl grating was conducted for verifying the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method. The tensile test results indicated that, at room temperature, the tensile strength and elongation were approximately 675 MPa and 1.7%, respectively. The microstructure and mechanical property of the investment cast TiAl alloy were discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intermetallics 2016) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Fatigue Performance of Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy Processed by Hot Severe Plastic Deformation
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2316-2327; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042316
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (934 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fatigue properties under axisymmetric push-pull loading of a magnesium alloy Mg-6Zn-0.5Zr (ZK60) after processing by multiaxial isothermal forging (MIF) to a total strain of 4.2 at 400 °C were investigated. The strong influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behavior is demonstrated. Hot
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Fatigue properties under axisymmetric push-pull loading of a magnesium alloy Mg-6Zn-0.5Zr (ZK60) after processing by multiaxial isothermal forging (MIF) to a total strain of 4.2 at 400 °C were investigated. The strong influence of the microstructure on the mechanical behavior is demonstrated. Hot severe plastic deformation was shown effective in improving the fatigue life in both the high- and low-cyclic regimes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Palladium(II) Recovery from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions by N,N′-Dimethyl-N,N′-Dibutylthiodiglycolamide
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2303-2315; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042303
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (370 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-dibutylthiodiglycolamide (DMDBTDGA) has been synthesized, characterized, and is investigated in this work as a potential liquid-liquid extractant for palladium(II), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Pd(II) is the only ion which is efficiently removed by
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N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-dibutylthiodiglycolamide (DMDBTDGA) has been synthesized, characterized, and is investigated in this work as a potential liquid-liquid extractant for palladium(II), platinum(IV), and rhodium(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Pd(II) is the only ion which is efficiently removed by DMDBTDGA in toluene from 1.5 M to 4.5 M HCl, but it is not extracted from 7.5 M HCl. Pd(II) stripping is quantitatively achieved by an acidic thiourea solution. Pd(II) extraction kinetics are highly favored (2–5 min). Distribution data points to a DMDBTDGA:Pd(II) species with a 1:1 molar ratio. Pd(II) can selectively be recovered by DMDBTDGA from 4.0 M HCl complex mixtures containing equivalent concentrations of Pt(IV) and Rh(III). When five-fold Fe(III) and Al(III) concentrations are present, only Pt(IV) in the presence of Fe(III), and Fe(III) itself, are extensively co-extracted together with Pd(II). However, Fe(III) can easily be eliminated through an intermediate scrubbing step with water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrometallurgy) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Corrosion Behavior in 3.5% NaCl Solutions of γ-TiAl Processed by Electron Beam Melting Process
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2289-2302; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042289
Received: 19 October 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1123 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the corrosion behavior of γ-TiAl alloy produced by electron beam melting (EBM) process in 3.5% NaCl solution was reported. The study has been performed using potentiodynamic polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques and complemented by scanning electron microscopy investigations.
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In this work, the corrosion behavior of γ-TiAl alloy produced by electron beam melting (EBM) process in 3.5% NaCl solution was reported. The study has been performed using potentiodynamic polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques and complemented by scanning electron microscopy investigations. All measurements were carried out after different periods of alloy exposure in the chloride solutions and at different temperatures. The results showed that the EBM produced γ-TiAl alloy has excellent corrosion resistance confirmed by the high values of polarization resistance and the low values of corrosion current and corrosion rate. With increase in immersion time, the corrosion potential moved to a higher positive value with a decrease in corrosion current and corrosion rate, which suggests an improvement in corrosion resistance. On the other hand, the increase of temperature was found to significantly increase the corrosion of the processed γ-TiAl alloy. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Effect of Additions of Ceramic Nanoparticles and Gas-Dynamic Treatment on Al Casting Alloys
Metals 2015, 5(4), 2277-2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/met5042277
Received: 18 October 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
In recent years, improving the mechanical properties of metals has become the main challenge in the modern materials and metallurgical industry. An alloying process is usually used to achieve advanced performance of metals. This paper, however, describes an alternative approach. Modification with ceramic
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In recent years, improving the mechanical properties of metals has become the main challenge in the modern materials and metallurgical industry. An alloying process is usually used to achieve advanced performance of metals. This paper, however, describes an alternative approach. Modification with ceramic nanoparticles, gas-dynamic treatment (GDT) and a combined treatment were investigated on a hypoeutectic Al-Si A356 alloy. Microstructural studies revealed the refinement of coarse α-Al grains and the formation of distributed eutectic Si particles. Subsequent testing of the mechanical properties revealed improvement after applying each of the treatments. The best results were obtained after modification with TiCN nanoparticles followed by GDT; the tensile strength and elongation of the A356 alloys increased by 18% and 19%, respectively. Full article
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