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Metals 2015, 5(2), 891-909; doi:10.3390/met5020891

Fatigue Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Medium Carbon Steel with Different Carbide Morphologies Processed by High Pressure Torsion

1
Materials Testing, University Kaiserslautern, Gottlieb-Daimler-Straße, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany
2
Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
3
Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials (KIT and TUD), Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUD), Petersenstr. 32, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
4
Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Heinz Werner Höppel
Received: 21 March 2015 / Revised: 21 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine-grained Metals)
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Abstract

The increased attention ultrafine grained (UFG) materials have received over the last decade has been inspired by their high strength in combination with a remarkable ductility, which is a promising combination for good fatigue properties. In this paper, we focus on the effect of different carbide morphologies in the initial microstructure on the fatigue behavior after high pressure torsion (HPT) treatment of SAE 1045 steels. The two initial carbide morphologies are spheroidized as well as tempered states. The HPT processing increased the hardness of the spheroidized and tempered states from 169 HV and 388 HV to a maximum of 511 HV and 758 HV, respectively. The endurance limit increased linearly with hardness up to about 500 HV independent of the carbide morphology. The fracture surfaces revealed mostly flat fatigue fracture surfaces with crack initiation at the surface or, more often, at non-metallic inclusions. Morphology and crack initiation mechanisms were changed by the severe plastic deformation. The residual fracture surface of specimens with spheroidal initial microstructures showed well-defined dimple structures also after HPT at high fatigue limits and high hardness values. In contrast, the specimens with a tempered initial microstructure showed rather brittle and rough residual fracture surfaces after HPT. View Full-Text
Keywords: severe plastic deformation; high pressure torsion; fatigue; carbide morphology; shear bands; high strength steels; microstructure; fracture surface severe plastic deformation; high pressure torsion; fatigue; carbide morphology; shear bands; high strength steels; microstructure; fracture surface
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruffing, C.; Kobler, A.; Courtois-Manara, E.; Prang, R.; Kübel, C.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Kerscher, E. Fatigue Behavior of Ultrafine-Grained Medium Carbon Steel with Different Carbide Morphologies Processed by High Pressure Torsion. Metals 2015, 5, 891-909.

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