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Metals, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 219-398

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Dehydrogenation Kinetics and Modeling Studies of MgH2 Enhanced by Transition Metal Oxide Catalysts Using Constant Pressure Thermodynamic Driving Forces
Metals 2012, 2(3), 219-228; doi:10.3390/met2030219
Received: 27 May 2012 / Revised: 13 June 2012 / Accepted: 14 June 2012 / Published: 25 June 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of transition metal oxide catalysts (ZrO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 and Nb2O5) on the hydrogen desorption kinetics of MgH2 was investigated using constant pressure thermodynamic driving forces in which the [...] Read more.
The influence of transition metal oxide catalysts (ZrO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 and Nb2O5) on the hydrogen desorption kinetics of MgH2 was investigated using constant pressure thermodynamic driving forces in which the ratio of the equilibrium plateau pressure (pm) to the opposing plateau (pop) was the same in all the reactions studied. The results showed Nb2O5 to be vastly superior to other catalysts for improving the thermodynamics and kinetics of MgH2. The modeling studies showed reaction at the phase boundary to be likely process controlling the reaction rates of all the systems studied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessArticle Rate Dependence of the Compressive Response of Ti Foams
Metals 2012, 2(3), 229-237; doi:10.3390/met2030229
Received: 27 April 2012 / Revised: 22 May 2012 / Accepted: 20 June 2012 / Published: 29 June 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (653 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and [...] Read more.
Titanium foams of relative density ranging from 0.3 to 0.9 were produced by titanium powder sintering procedures and tested in uniaxial compression at strain rates ranging from 0.01 to 2,000 s−1. The material microstructure was examined by X-ray tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations. The foams investigated are strain rate sensitive, with both the yield stress and the strain hardening increasing with applied strain rate, and the strain rate sensitivity is more pronounced in foams of lower relative density. Finite element simulations were conducted modelling explicitly the material’s microstructure at the micron level, via a 3D Voronoi tessellation. Low and high strain rate simulations were conducted in order to predict the material’s compressive response, employing both rate-dependant and rate-independent constitutive models. Results from numerical analyses suggest that the primary source of rate sensitivity is represented by the intrinsic sensitivity of the foam’s parent material. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anomalous Structure of Palladium-Capped Magnesium Thin Films
Metals 2012, 2(3), 253-257; doi:10.3390/met2030253
Received: 30 May 2012 / Revised: 5 July 2012 / Accepted: 16 July 2012 / Published: 25 July 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Pd capped pure Mg thin film (50 nm thick) was prepared by magnetron sputtering and its hydrogenation at room temperature has been investigated. After exposure to 4% hydrogen gas diluted by argon, the Pd/Mg thin films show drastic optical changes from the [...] Read more.
Pd capped pure Mg thin film (50 nm thick) was prepared by magnetron sputtering and its hydrogenation at room temperature has been investigated. After exposure to 4% hydrogen gas diluted by argon, the Pd/Mg thin films show drastic optical changes from the metallic state to the transparent state within five seconds by hydrogenation. Transmission electron microscope observation reveals that this sample has an anomalous structure; Mg grain is surrounded by Pd. This structure may be the reason why Pd/Mg films can be hydrogenated so quickly at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessArticle Behavior of Metallic Foam under Shock Wave Loading
Metals 2012, 2(3), 258-264; doi:10.3390/met2030258
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 3 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (839 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this manuscript, the behavior of metallic foam under impact loading and shock wave propagation has been observed. The goal of this research was to investigate the material and structural properties of submerged open-cell aluminum foam under impact loading conditions with particular [...] Read more.
In this manuscript, the behavior of metallic foam under impact loading and shock wave propagation has been observed. The goal of this research was to investigate the material and structural properties of submerged open-cell aluminum foam under impact loading conditions with particular interest in shock wave propagation and its effects on cellular material deformation. For this purpose experimental tests and dynamic computational simulations of aluminum foam specimens inside a water tank subjected to explosive charge have been performed. Comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the experimental and simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Foams)
Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Directionally Freeze-cast Copper Foams
Metals 2012, 2(3), 265-273; doi:10.3390/met2030265
Received: 2 June 2012 / Revised: 9 July 2012 / Accepted: 30 July 2012 / Published: 9 August 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (517 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Because of their excellent thermal and electric conductivities, copper foams are ideally suited for applications such as heat exchangers, catalyst supports and EMI-shields. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of copper with ~80% aligned, elongated, interconnected pores via directional freeze casting, a well [...] Read more.
Because of their excellent thermal and electric conductivities, copper foams are ideally suited for applications such as heat exchangers, catalyst supports and EMI-shields. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of copper with ~80% aligned, elongated, interconnected pores via directional freeze casting, a well established processing technique for porous ceramics. First, an aqueous slurry of 40−80 nm cupric oxide powders was directionally solidified, resulting in a preform consisting of elongated, aligned dendrites of pure ice separated by interdendritic ice walls with high oxide powder content. Oxide rather than metallic nanometric particles are used, as the latter would oxidize rapidly and uncontrollably when suspended in the aqueous solution used during directional casting. The preforms were then freeze-dried to sublimate the ice and sintered in a hydrogen-bearing atmosphere to reduce the copper oxide to metallic copper particles and densify these copper particles. Microstructural analysis of the copper foams shows that three types of porosities are present: (i) aligned, elongated pores replicating the ice dendrites created during the freeze-casting process; (ii) micro-porosity in the partially sintered copper walls separating the elongated pores; and (iii) cracks in these copper walls, probably created because of shrinkage associated with the reduction of the oxide powders. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Micron-Ti and Nano-Cu Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Pure Magnesium
Metals 2012, 2(3), 274-291; doi:10.3390/met2030274
Received: 26 April 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 10 August 2012 / Published: 17 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, metallic elements that have limited/negligible solubility in pure magnesium (Mg) were incorporated in Mg using the disintegrated melt deposition technique. The metallic elements added include: (i) micron sized titanium (Ti) particulates with negligible solubility; (ii) nano sized copper (Cu) [...] Read more.
In this study, metallic elements that have limited/negligible solubility in pure magnesium (Mg) were incorporated in Mg using the disintegrated melt deposition technique. The metallic elements added include: (i) micron sized titanium (Ti) particulates with negligible solubility; (ii) nano sized copper (Cu) particulates with limited solubility; and (iii) the combination of micro-Ti and nano-Cu. The combined metallic addition (Ti + Cu) was carried out with and without preprocessing by ball-milling. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the developed Mg-materials were investigated. Microstructure observation revealed grain refinement due to the individual and combined presence of hard metallic particulates. The mechanical properties evaluation revealed a significant improvement in microhardness, tensile and compressive strengths. Individual additions of Ti and Cu resulted in Mg-Ti composite and Mg-Cu alloy respectively, and their mechanical properties were influenced by the inherent properties of the particulates and the resulting second phases, if any. In the case of combined addition, the significant improvement in properties were observed in Mg-(Ti + Cu)BM composite containing ball milled (Ti + Cu) particulates, when compared to direct addition of Ti and Cu particulates. The change in particle morphology, formation of Ti3Cu intermetallic and good interfacial bonding with the matrix achieved due to preprocessing, contributed to its superior strength and ductility, in case of Mg-(Ti + Cu)BM composite. The best combination of hardness, tensile and compressive behavior was exhibited by Mg-(Ti + Cu)BM composite formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation Mechanisms in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Extruded at Different Temperatures: Impact of Texture
Metals 2012, 2(3), 292-312; doi:10.3390/met2030292
Received: 25 June 2012 / Revised: 27 July 2012 / Accepted: 6 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3817 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The hot deformation characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy rod extruded at temperatures of 300 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C have been studied in compression. The extruded material had a fiber texture with parallel to the extrusion axis. When extruded at 450 °C, [...] Read more.
The hot deformation characteristics of AZ31 magnesium alloy rod extruded at temperatures of 300 °C, 350 °C and 450 °C have been studied in compression. The extruded material had a fiber texture with parallel to the extrusion axis. When extruded at 450 °C, the texture was less intense and the direction moved away from the extrusion axis. The processing maps for the material extruded at 300 °C and 350 °C are qualitatively similar to the material with near-random texture (cast-homogenized) and exhibited three dynamic recrystallization (DRX) domains. In domains #1 and #2, prismatic slip is the dominant process and DRX is controlled by lattice self-diffusion and grain boundary self-diffusion, respectively. In domain #3, pyramidal slip occurs extensively and DRX is controlled by cross-slip on pyramidal slip systems. The material extruded at 450 °C exhibited two domains similar to #1 and #2 above, which moved to higher temperatures, but domain #3 is absent. The results are interpreted in terms of the changes in fiber texture with extrusion temperature. Highly intense texture, as in the rod extruded at 350 °C, will enhance the occurrence of prismatic slip in domains #1 and #2 and promotes pyramidal slip at temperatures >450 °C (domain #3). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessArticle Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of Mg-Al Alloys (AZ41 and AZ51) and Its Composites
Metals 2012, 2(3), 313-328; doi:10.3390/met2030313
Received: 28 May 2012 / Revised: 10 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
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Abstract
In the present study, AZ41 and AZ51 alloys were fabricated using disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. AZ41/Yttria and AZ51/Yttria composites were prepared using 0.6 wt% yttria nano particles in the alloys using the same fabrication technique. From the tensile [...] Read more.
In the present study, AZ41 and AZ51 alloys were fabricated using disintegrated melt deposition technique followed by hot extrusion. AZ41/Yttria and AZ51/Yttria composites were prepared using 0.6 wt% yttria nano particles in the alloys using the same fabrication technique. From the tensile test results, both strengths (yield and tensile) and ductility were improved in AZ51 when compared to AZ41. In comparison with its alloy counterparts, the yield and tensile strengths were enhanced while maintaining the same ductility in AZ41/Yttria composite, but comparable strengths with decreased ductility were observed in AZ51/Yttria composite. Under compressive loading, an improvement in strengths with similar ductility was observed in AZ51 when compared to AZ41. The best combination of strengths and ductility was observed in AZ51/Yttria composites from compression test results. The obtained mechanical properties are correlated with the microstructure observations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessArticle 3D Microstructure Modeling of Porous Metal Filters
Metals 2012, 2(3), 344-352; doi:10.3390/met2030344
Received: 11 May 2012 / Revised: 9 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 10 September 2012
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Abstract
The contribution presents a modified method of stochastic reconstruction of two porous stainless-steel filters. The description of their microstructures was based on a combination of the two-point probability function for the void phase and the lineal-path functions for the void and solid [...] Read more.
The contribution presents a modified method of stochastic reconstruction of two porous stainless-steel filters. The description of their microstructures was based on a combination of the two-point probability function for the void phase and the lineal-path functions for the void and solid phases. The method of stochastic reconstruction based on simulated annealing was capable of reproducing good connectivity of both phases, which was confirmed by calculating descriptors of the local porosity theory. Theoretical values of permeability were compared with their experimental counterparts measured by means of quasi-stationary permeation of four inert gases. Full article
Open AccessArticle Thermodynamic Database for Mg Alloys—Progress in Multicomponent Modeling
Metals 2012, 2(3), 377-398; doi:10.3390/met2030377
Received: 2 July 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (415 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Progress in systematic development of a thermodynamic database for Mg alloys with 21 components is reported. Models for multicomponent alloys are built in a methodical approach from quantitative descriptions of unary, binary and ternary subsystems. For a large number of ternary—and some [...] Read more.
Progress in systematic development of a thermodynamic database for Mg alloys with 21 components is reported. Models for multicomponent alloys are built in a methodical approach from quantitative descriptions of unary, binary and ternary subsystems. For a large number of ternary—and some higher—alloy systems, an evaluation of the modeling depth is made with concise reference to experimental work validating these thermodynamic descriptions. A special focus is on ternary intermetallic phase compositions. These comprise solutions of the third component in a binary compound as well as truly ternary solid solution phases, in addition to the simple ternary stoichiometric phases. Concise information on the stability ranges is given. That evaluation is extended to selected quaternary and even higher alloy systems. Thermodynamic descriptions of intermetallic solution phases guided by their crystal structure are also elaborated and the diversity of such unified phases is emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)

Review

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Open AccessReview Magnesium Matrix Composite Foams—Density, Mechanical Properties, and Applications
Metals 2012, 2(3), 238-252; doi:10.3390/met2030238
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 29 June 2012 / Accepted: 3 July 2012 / Published: 24 July 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Potential of widespread industrial applications of magnesium has been realized in recent years. A variety of magnesium alloy matrix composites are now being studied for mechanical properties. Since magnesium is the lightest structural metal, it can replace aluminum in existing applications for [...] Read more.
Potential of widespread industrial applications of magnesium has been realized in recent years. A variety of magnesium alloy matrix composites are now being studied for mechanical properties. Since magnesium is the lightest structural metal, it can replace aluminum in existing applications for further weight savings. This review presents an overview of hollow particle filled magnesium matrix syntactic composite foams. Fly ash cenospheres are the most commonly used hollow particles for such applications. Fly ash cenospheres primarily have alumino-silicate composition and contain a large number of trace elements, which makes it challenging to study the interfacial reactions and microstructure in these composites. Microstructures of commonly studied AZ and ZC series magnesium alloys and their syntactic foams are discussed. Although only a few studies are available on these materials because of the nascent stage of this field, a comparison with similar aluminum matrix syntactic foams has provided insight into the properties and weight saving potential of magnesium matrix composites. Analysis shows that the magnesium matrix syntactic foams have higher yield strength at the same level of density compared to most other metal matrix syntactic foams. The comparison can guide future work and set goals that need to be achieved through materials selection and processing method development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessReview Application of Severe Plastic Deformation Techniques to Magnesium for Enhanced Hydrogen Sorption Properties
Metals 2012, 2(3), 329-343; doi:10.3390/met2030329
Received: 1 June 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 15 August 2012 / Published: 31 August 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (2917 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we review the latest developments in the use of severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques for enhancement of hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys. Main focus will be on two techniques: Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Cold [...] Read more.
In this paper we review the latest developments in the use of severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques for enhancement of hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys. Main focus will be on two techniques: Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) and Cold Rolling (CR). After a brief description of these two techniques we will discuss their effects on the texture and hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium alloys. In particular, the effect of the processing temperature in ECAP on texture will be demonstrated. We also show that ECAP and CR have produced different textures. Despite the scarcity of experimental results, the investigations up to now indicate that SPD techniques produce metal hydrides with enhanced hydrogen storage properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnesium Technology)
Open AccessReview Magnesium-Based Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection Coatings (Mg-Rich Primers) for Aluminum Alloys
Metals 2012, 2(3), 353-376; doi:10.3390/met2030353
Received: 31 May 2012 / Revised: 6 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 14 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium is electrochemically the most active metal employed in common structural alloys of iron and aluminum. Mg is widely used as a sacrificial anode to provide cathodic protection of underground and undersea metallic structures, ships, submarines, bridges, decks, aircraft and ground transportation systems. Following the same principle of utilizing Mg characteristics in engineering advantages in a decade-long successful R&D effort, Mg powder is now employed in organic coatings (termed as Mg-rich primers) as a sacrificial anode pigment to protect aerospace grade aluminum alloys against corrosion. Mg-rich primers have performed very well on aluminum alloys when compared against the current chromate standard, but the carcinogenic chromate-based coatings/pretreatments are being widely used by the Department of Defense (DoD) to protect its infrastructure and fleets against corrosion damage. Factors such as reactivity of Mg particles in the coating matrix during exposure to aggressive corrosion environments, interaction of atmospheric gases with Mg particles and the impact of Mg dissolution, increases in pH and hydrogen gas liberation at coating-metal interface, and primer adhesion need to be considered for further development of Mg-rich primer technology. Full article

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