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Sports 2017, 5(2), 45; doi:10.3390/sports5020045

Energy Expenditure, Availability, and Dietary Intake Assessment in Competitive Female Dragon Boat Athletes

Human Nutrition Research Centre, Newcastle University, 172A Ang Mo Kio Ave 8, Singapore 567739, Singapore
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 16 June 2017 / Published: 21 June 2017
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Dragon boat racing requires high physical activity levels during competition and training. The female athletic triad refers to a number of negative health consequences (e.g., amenorrhoea, low bone mineral density, and low energy availability) that may result from high physical activity in female athletes in parallel with inadequate dietary intake. This study aimed to estimate energy expenditure and dietary adequacy in female competitive dragon boat athletes. Following ethical approval, energy expenditure was assessed by use of SensewearTM armbands (which measure movement as well as galvanic heat loss) on nine dragon boat athletes preparing for the Southeast Asian Games 2013. The mean estimated energy expenditure for the athletes was 2226 ± 711 kJ/day. Mean total energy, recorded using three-day food diaries (6715 ± 2518 kJ/day) and energy availability (99 ± 56 kJ/kg/day), were low. Estimated micronutrient intake (calcium 699.3 ± 328.7 mg/day and iron 10.6 ± 4.7 mg/day) did not meet recommended daily allowances of 800 mg/day and 19 mg/day, respectively. The low intake of energy, calcium, and iron noted within this study could have negative effects on performance and short- and long-term health in female dragon boat athletes. View Full-Text
Keywords: female athletic triad; energy expenditure; energy availability; dietary intake female athletic triad; energy expenditure; energy availability; dietary intake
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ong, J.L.; Brownlee, I.A. Energy Expenditure, Availability, and Dietary Intake Assessment in Competitive Female Dragon Boat Athletes. Sports 2017, 5, 45.

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