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Sports 2017, 5(2), 38; doi:10.3390/sports5020038

What is Trained Develops! Theoretical Perspective on Skill Learning

1
Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
2
Department of Sport Science, Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
3
School of Exercise & Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
4
Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7491 Trondheim, Norway
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Duncan
Received: 27 April 2017 / Revised: 29 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
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Abstract

Knowledge about developmental theories is important for experts or specialists working with children following normal development and children who have various kinds of dysfunction, in order to better understand what happens with processes associated with motor behavior. In this article, we have explored how theories of development and learning can be used to understand processes associated with motor behavior. A probabilistic perspective emphasizes that the changes taking place in the development is a result of interaction: structural changes in the nervous system leading to changes in function and behavior and opposite, functional changes resulting in changes in structure. This bidirectional interaction between biological and experiential aspects is a continuous process which cannot be reduced to either organism or environment. Dynamical systems theory (DST) emphasizes that it is the interaction between the person, the environment, and the task that changes how our movements are, also in terms of how we develop and learn new movements. The interplay between these factors will, over time, lead to changes in motor development. The importance of experience is central to Edelman's theory of neuronal group selection (NGST). Activation of the nervous system increases the connections between certain areas of the brain, and the selection processes in the brain are a result of enhancement of neural connections involved in a "successful" motion. The central nervous system adapts its structure and function in response to internal and external influences, and hence neural plasticity is a prerequisite for learning and development. We argue that Edelman´s approach supports the theory of specificity of learning. From the perspectives of probabilistic epigenesis, DST, and NGST, we can see that being physically active and having the opportunity to get different movement experiences are of great significance for promoting motor development and learning. A variation of purposeful or rewarding physical activity in a variety of contexts will provide individual opportunities for changes of behavior in terms of both quantitative and qualitative changes in motor development. View Full-Text
Keywords: children; development; probabilistic epigenesis; Neural Darwinism; dynamic systems theory; task specificity; learning children; development; probabilistic epigenesis; Neural Darwinism; dynamic systems theory; task specificity; learning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sigmundsson, H.; Trana, L.; Polman, R.; Haga, M. What is Trained Develops! Theoretical Perspective on Skill Learning. Sports 2017, 5, 38.

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