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Sports 2016, 4(1), 8; doi:10.3390/sports4010008

Clinical Assessment of Scapula Motion: Scapula Upward Rotation and Relationship with Injury in Swimmers

School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Queensland 4552, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 14 January 2016 / Accepted: 21 January 2016 / Published: 28 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Medicine)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [365 KB, uploaded 28 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Abnormal scapulothoracic mechanics and scapulohumeral rhythm are implicated in shoulder pathologies, including glenohumeral impingement and rotator cuff tears. Upward scapula rotation, specifically asymmetry of scapula motion and associations of patterns through range with injury, was investigated in dominant and non-dominant limbs of nationally ranked junior and Paralympic swimmers during competition season. The static and throughout phases measures of upward scapula rotation were: Phase I (start position, 45°), Phase II (45° to 90°), Phase III (90° to 135°) and Phase IV (135° to max). Injury was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Differences between side (dominant and non-dominant), group (junior and Paralympic), and phase were examined. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups were identified for dominant side at rest, 45° and 135°, and in phases II and IV (including range). Scapulohumeral rhythm was higher in the non-dominant limb of Paralympic swimmers but in the dominant limb of junior swimmers. Greatest differences in upward rotation between injured and non-injured swimmers were found in Phase 1: 43.6% (3.3°) Paralympic; 73.1% (8°) junior. Results suggest asymmetry of movement in both limbs, through all phases, and at single points in range, should be investigated for assessing injury and developing preventive strategies and rehabilitation protocols. View Full-Text
Keywords: dominant limb; non-dominant limb; asymmetry of motion; scapula; scapula upward rotation; injury; Paralympic swimmers dominant limb; non-dominant limb; asymmetry of motion; scapula; scapula upward rotation; injury; Paralympic swimmers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brown, J.; Mellifont, R.; Burkett, B. Clinical Assessment of Scapula Motion: Scapula Upward Rotation and Relationship with Injury in Swimmers. Sports 2016, 4, 8.

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