Next Article in Journal
Development of Sparganothis sulfureana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on Cranberry Cultivars
Next Article in Special Issue
Black Border Increases Stomoxys calcitrans Catch on White Sticky Traps
Previous Article in Journal
The Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative: A Critical Perspective for Hawaiian Insect Evolution
Previous Article in Special Issue
Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards

1
Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, Bizerte 7021, Tunisia
2
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, 1911 SW 34th Street, Gainesville, FL 32614-7100, USA
3
Independent Science Advisor, York YO10 5AQ, UK
4
Laboratory of Entomology, Regional Center of Research on Horticulture and Organic Agriculture, The University of Sousse, Chott-Mariem, Sousse 4042, Tunisia
5
Deparment of Olive Tree Physiology, Institute of the Olive Tree Station of Sousse, 40 Street Ibn Khouldoun, Sousse 4061, Tunisia
Z.A. and M.Z.A. contributed equally to this work and share first authorship together.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 6 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 1 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Monitoring and Trapping in Agricultural Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1035 KB, uploaded 2 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The almond bark beetle, Scolytus amygdali Geurin-Meneville, is responsible for significant loss of fruit production in almond orchards throughout the world. Here, we studied the damage and the incidences of S. amygdali attack on two different scales: (1) at the level of a single tree; and (2) in an entire orchard. Our results revealed no differences in attack level among four orientations (east, west, south and north sides) for the whole tree. However, the bark that was facing west side in the direction of the prevailing wind was found to be the most suitable for females to initiate attack in Stratum S2. Attack distribution remains the same among different strata (strata is vertical divisions of the tree from the ground to the uppermost twigs with ~40 cm intervals). More than 50% of attack was observed in the trunk of the tree and upper strata. However, multiplication rate (number of emerged adults/maternal gallery) varies significantly between strata. In addition, we studied attack intensity (holes produced by beetle per tree) comparing it to tree morphology (flowers, leaves and circumferences) and gum deposit. Our results revealed a positive correlation between attack intensity and gum deposits, and a negative correlation between attack intensity and tree morphology. This revealed that gum on the tree was an indicator for attack intensity. A positive correlation between attack intensity and the circumference of the tree revealed that older trees were more susceptible to S. amygdali attack. These results, while preliminary, aim to help in the monitoring of S. amygdali populations before deciding to apply any control measures. View Full-Text
Keywords: attack; almond orchard; distribution; feeding preference; Tunisia attack; almond orchard; distribution; feeding preference; Tunisia
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zeiri, A.; Ahmed, M.Z.; Cuthbertson, A.G.S.; Braham, M.; Braham, M. Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards. Insects 2018, 9, 1.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top