Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards
AbstractThe almond bark beetle, Scolytus amygdali Geurin-Meneville, is responsible for significant loss of fruit production in almond orchards throughout the world. Here, we studied the damage and the incidences of S. amygdali attack on two different scales: (1) at the level of a single tree; and (2) in an entire orchard. Our results revealed no differences in attack level among four orientations (east, west, south and north sides) for the whole tree. However, the bark that was facing west side in the direction of the prevailing wind was found to be the most suitable for females to initiate attack in Stratum S2. Attack distribution remains the same among different strata (strata is vertical divisions of the tree from the ground to the uppermost twigs with ~40 cm intervals). More than 50% of attack was observed in the trunk of the tree and upper strata. However, multiplication rate (number of emerged adults/maternal gallery) varies significantly between strata. In addition, we studied attack intensity (holes produced by beetle per tree) comparing it to tree morphology (flowers, leaves and circumferences) and gum deposit. Our results revealed a positive correlation between attack intensity and gum deposits, and a negative correlation between attack intensity and tree morphology. This revealed that gum on the tree was an indicator for attack intensity. A positive correlation between attack intensity and the circumference of the tree revealed that older trees were more susceptible to S. amygdali attack. These results, while preliminary, aim to help in the monitoring of S. amygdali populations before deciding to apply any control measures. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
PDF-Document (PDF, 386 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Zeiri, A.; Ahmed, M.Z.; Cuthbertson, A.G.S.; Braham, M.; Braham, M. Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards. Insects 2018, 9, 1.
Zeiri A, Ahmed MZ, Cuthbertson AGS, Braham M, Braham M. Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards. Insects. 2018; 9(1):1.Chicago/Turabian Style
Zeiri, Asma; Ahmed, Muhammad Z.; Cuthbertson, Andrew G.S.; Braham, Mohamed; Braham, Mohamed. 2018. "Monitoring the Attack Incidences and Damage Caused by the Almond Bark Beetle, Scolytus amygdali, in Almond Orchards." Insects 9, no. 1: 1.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.