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Insects 2017, 8(3), 102; doi:10.3390/insects8030102

Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens

1
Molecular Developmental Physiology and Signal Transduction lab, Division of Animal Physiology and Neurobiology, Department of Biology, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2
Lab4Food, Technology Cluster Bioengineering Technology, Department of Microbial & Molecular Systems, University of Leuven, 2440 Geel, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Kerry Wilkinson and Heather Bray
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Insects—Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security)
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Abstract

The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November–December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44%) and palmitic acid (28%) were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21%) suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896–1035 mg/100 g), potassium (779–816 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (652–685 mg/100 g) were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217–220 mg/100 g), zinc (14.2–14.6 mg/100 g), manganese (7.4–8.3 mg/100 g) and copper (1.66 mg/100 g) suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kenya; entomophagy; feed; food; grasshopper; lipid; preservation method; micronutrient Kenya; entomophagy; feed; food; grasshopper; lipid; preservation method; micronutrient
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Fombong, F.T.; Van Der Borght, M.; Vanden Broeck, J. Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens. Insects 2017, 8, 102.

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