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Insects 2017, 8(2), 43; doi:10.3390/insects8020043

Factors Affecting Species Identifications of Blow Fly Pupae Based upon Chemical Profiles and Multivariate Statistics

1
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
2
Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
3
Department of Biology, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: David Rivers and John R. Wallace
Received: 23 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 1 April 2017 / Published: 11 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Forensic Entomology)
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Abstract

Alternative methods for the identification of species of blow fly pupae have been developed over the years that consist of the analyses of chemical profiles. However, the effect of biotic and abiotic factors that could influence the predictive manner for the tests have not been evaluated. The lipids of blowfly pupae (Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia cuprina, Lucilia sericata, and Phormia regina) were extracted in pentane, derivatized, and analyzed by total-vaporization solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TV-SPME GC-MS). Peak areas for 26 compounds were analyzed. Here we evaluated one biotic factor (colonization) on four species of blow flies to determine how well a model produced from lipid profiles of colonized flies predicted the species of flies of offspring of wild-caught flies and found very good species identification following 10 generations of inbreeding. When we evaluated four abiotic factors in our fly rearing protocols (temperature, humidity, pupation substrate, and diet), we found that the ability to assign the chemical profile to the correct species was greatly reduced. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phormia regina; Lucilia sericata; Lucilia cuprina; Cochliomyia macellaria; forensic entomology; TV-SPME; blow fly pupae; lipid analysis Phormia regina; Lucilia sericata; Lucilia cuprina; Cochliomyia macellaria; forensic entomology; TV-SPME; blow fly pupae; lipid analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kranz, W.; Carroll, C.; Dixon, D.A.; Goodpaster, J.V.; Picard, C.J. Factors Affecting Species Identifications of Blow Fly Pupae Based upon Chemical Profiles and Multivariate Statistics. Insects 2017, 8, 43.

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