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Insects 2014, 5(4), 705-721; doi:10.3390/insects5040705

Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella

1
IBED, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Pacific Agri-Food Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Box 5000, 4200 Highway 97, Summerland, BC V0H 1Z0, Canada
3
IRTA, Sustainable Plant Protection, Entomology, Avda Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
4
FEM, Technology Transfer Center, V. E. Mach, 1 38010 S. Michele a/A, Italy
5
Department of Crop and Forest Sciences, University of Lleida, Avda Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
6
Department of Entomology, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans Knoell strasse 8, 07745 Jena, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 July 2014 / Revised: 30 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 September 2014 / Published: 26 September 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pheromones and Insect Behaviour)
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Abstract

The codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae), is a major pest of apple, pear and walnut orchards worldwide. This pest is often controlled using the biologically friendly control method known as pheromone-based mating disruption. Mating disruption likely exerts selection on the sexual communication system of codling moth, as male and female moths will persist in their attempt to meet and mate. Surprisingly little is known on the intraspecific variation of sexual communication in this species. We started an investigation to determine the level of individual variation in the female sex pheromone composition of this moth and whether variation among different populations might be correlated with use of mating disruption against those populations. By extracting pheromone glands of individual females from a laboratory population in Canada and from populations from apple orchards in Spain and Italy, we found significant between- and within-population variation. Comparing females that had been exposed to mating disruption, or not, revealed a significant difference in sex pheromone composition for two of the minor components. Overall, the intraspecific variation observed shows the potential for a shift in female sexual signal when selection pressure is high, as is the case with continuous use of mating disruption. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cydia pomonella; mating disruption; sexual communication; Lepidoptera; Tortricidae; communication interference; codlemone; pheromone Cydia pomonella; mating disruption; sexual communication; Lepidoptera; Tortricidae; communication interference; codlemone; pheromone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Duménil, C.; Judd, G.J.R.; Bosch, D.; Baldessari, M.; Gemeno, C.; Groot, A.T. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella. Insects 2014, 5, 705-721.

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