Next Article in Journal
Contrasting Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors on Reward and Aversive Olfactory Memories in the Honey Bee
Next Article in Special Issue
Ecology of the African Maize Stalk Borer, Busseola fusca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Special Reference to Insect-Plant Interactions
Previous Article in Journal
Glycolytic Activities in the Larval Digestive Tract of Trypoxylus dichotomus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Insects 2014, 5(2), 364-376; doi:10.3390/insects5020364

Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant–Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore

1
Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, S-225 Ag North, Lexington, KY 40546, USA
2
Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA
Current address: Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, Ohio State University, 318 W. 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 March 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 3 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect-Plant Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [274 KB, uploaded 3 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

Micromechanical properties that help mediate herbivore access may be particularly important when considering herbivorous insects that feed with piercing-sucking stylets. We used microindentation to quantify the micromechanical properties of hemlock, Tsuga spp., to quantify the hardness of the feeding site of the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. We measured hardness of the hemlock leaf cushion, the stylet insertion point of the adelgid, across four seasons in a 1 y period for four hemlock species growing in a common garden, including eastern, western, mountain, and northern Japanese hemlocks. Leaf cushion hardness was highest in the fall and winter and lowest in summer for all species. Northern Japanese hemlock had relatively greater hardness than the remaining species. Our data contributes an additional perspective to the existing framework within which greater susceptibility and subsequent mortality of eastern hemlocks is observed. The potential application of microindentation to understanding the nature and relevance of plant mechanical defenses in plant–herbivore interactions is also demonstrated and highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemlock woolly adelgid; constitutive resistance; leaf cushion; microindentation hemlock woolly adelgid; constitutive resistance; leaf cushion; microindentation
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ayayee, P.; Yang, F.; Rieske, L.K. Biomechanical Properties of Hemlocks: A Novel Approach to Evaluating Physical Barriers of the Plant–Insect Interface and Resistance to a Phloem-Feeding Herbivore. Insects 2014, 5, 364-376.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Insects EISSN 2075-4450 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top