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Insects 2014, 5(2), 332-350; doi:10.3390/insects5020332

Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae) in Central Wisconsin, USA

909 Birch Street, Baraboo, WI 53913, USA
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Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
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Abstract

We recorded five species of elfins (Callophrys) during annual spring surveys targeting frosted elfin C. irus (state-listed as threatened) in 19 pine-oak barrens in central Wisconsin USA during 1994–2013. At the northwest end of its range here, C. irus co-varied with spring temperature, but declined significantly over time (eight sites verified extant of originally 17). Two other specialists increased significantly. The northern specialist, hoary elfin C. polios (nine sites), correlated positively with the previous year’s growing season precipitation. The southern specialist, Henry’s elfin C. henrici (11 sites), co-varied with winter precipitation and spring temperature and dryness. The two resident generalists had stable trends. For all species, the first observed date per year became earlier over time and varied more than the last observed date. Thus, flight period span increased with earlier first observed dates. Elfin abundance increased significantly with earlier first observed dates in the current and/or prior year. Three species (C. irus, C. henrici, a generalist) had more positive population trends in reserves than non-reserves. This suggests that C. irus declines correspond to habitat conditions. Thus, monitoring programs and habitat management specifically for C. irus appear necessary to obtain a long-term stable trend for this species in Wisconsin. View Full-Text
Keywords: Callophrys; Callophrys irus; climate effects; elfin; frosted elfin; long-term monitoring; population trends; reserves and non-reserves; Theclinae; pine barrens Callophrys; Callophrys irus; climate effects; elfin; frosted elfin; long-term monitoring; population trends; reserves and non-reserves; Theclinae; pine barrens
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MDPI and ACS Style

Swengel, A.B.; Swengel, S.R. Twenty Years of Elfin Enumeration: Abundance Patterns of Five Species of Callophrys (Lycaenidae) in Central Wisconsin, USA. Insects 2014, 5, 332-350.

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