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Insects 2013, 4(4), 558-592; doi:10.3390/insects4040558
Review

Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion

Received: 27 June 2013 / Revised: 13 September 2013 / Accepted: 24 September 2013 / Published: 21 October 2013
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Abstract

Apis cerana Fabricius is endemic to most of Asia, where it has been used for honey production and pollination services for thousands of years. Since the 1980s, A. cerana has been introduced to areas outside its natural range (namely New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, and Australia), which sparked fears that it may become a pest species that could compete with, and negatively affect, native Australian fauna and flora, as well as commercially kept A. mellifera and commercial crops. This literature review is a response to these concerns and reviews what is known about the ecology and behaviour of A. cerana. Differences between temperate and tropical strains of A. cerana are reviewed, as are A. cerana pollination, competition between A. cerana and A. mellifera, and the impact and control strategies of introduced A. cerana, with a particular focus on gaps of current knowledge.
Keywords: Apis cerana; Apis mellifera; incursion; pest species; Australia; pollination; competition; distribution; control Apis cerana; Apis mellifera; incursion; pest species; Australia; pollination; competition; distribution; control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Koetz, A.H. Ecology, Behaviour and Control of Apis cerana with a Focus on Relevance to the Australian Incursion. Insects 2013, 4, 558-592.

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