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Insects, Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2013), Pages 177-286

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation
Insects 2013, 4(2), 177-184; doi:10.3390/insects4020177
Received: 25 January 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2013 / Accepted: 2 April 2013 / Published: 15 April 2013
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Abstract
Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors [...] Read more.
Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by “exciting students about science”, who perceived increases in “student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts” and/or students as “more interested in termites after participating in this project were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula. Full article
Open AccessArticle Population Development of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under Simulated UK Glasshouse Conditions
Insects 2013, 4(2), 185-197; doi:10.3390/insects4020185
Received: 11 March 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 15 May 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (529 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK [...] Read more.
Tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of tomato plants in South America. It was first recorded in the UK in 2009 where it has been subjected to eradication policies. The current work outlines T. absoluta development under various UK glasshouse temperatures. The optimum temperature for Tuta development ranged from 19–23 °C. At 19 °C, there was 52% survival of T. absoluta from egg to adult. As temperature increased (23 °C and above) development time of the moth would appear to decrease. Population development ceases between 7 and 10 °C. Only 17% of eggs hatched at 10 °C but no larvae developed through to adult moths. No eggs hatched when maintained at 7 °C. Under laboratory conditions the total lifespan of the moth was longest (72 days) at 13 °C and shortest (35 days) at both 23 and 25 °C. Development from egg to adult took 58 days at 13 °C; 37 days at 19 °C and 23 days at 25 °C. High mortality of larvae occurred under all temperatures tested. First instar larvae were exposed on the leaf surface for approximately 82 minutes before fully tunnelling into the leaf. Adult longevity was longest at 10 °C with moths living for 40 days and shortest at 19 °C where they survived for 16 days. Generally more males than females were produced. The potential of Tuta absoluta to establish populations within UK protected horticulture is discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Horizontal Transmission of Metarhizium anisopliae in Fruit Flies and Effect of Fungal Infection on Egg Laying and Fertility
Insects 2013, 4(2), 206-216; doi:10.3390/insects4020206
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 27 April 2013 / Accepted: 2 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (163 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The [...] Read more.
Fly-to-fly transmission of conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the effect of fungal infection on the reproductive potential of females surviving infection were investigated in three fruit fly species, Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris, and C. capitata. The number of conidia picked up by a single fruit fly was determined in C. cosyra. The initial uptake (Day 0) of conidia by a single fly was approx. 1.1 × 106 conidia after exposure to the treated substrate. However, the number of conidia dropped from 7.2 × 105 to 4.1 × 105 conidia after 2 and 8 h post-exposure, respectively. The number of conidia picked up by a single fungus-treated fly (“donor”) varied between 3.8 × 105 and 1.0 × 106 in the three fruit fly species, resulting in 100% mortality 5–6 days post-exposure. When fungus-free flies of both sexes (“recipient” flies) were allowed to mate with “donor” flies, the number of conidia picked up by a single fly varied between 1.0 × 105 and 2.5 × 105, resulting in a mortality of 83–100% in C. capitata, 72–85% in C. cosyra and 71–93% in C. fasciventris 10–15 days post-inoculation. There was an effect of fungal infection on female egg laying in the three species of fruit flies as control flies laid more eggs than fungus-treated females. The percentage reduction in fecundity in flies infected with M. anisopliae was 82, 73 and 37% in C. capitata, C. fasciventris and C. cosyra, respectively. The results are discussed with regard to application in autodissemination techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle Laboratory and Simulated Field Bioassays to Evaluate Larvicidal Activity of Pinus densiflora Hydrodistillate, Its Constituents and Structurally Related Compounds against Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens in Relation to Their Inhibitory Effects on Acetylcholinesterase Activity
Insects 2013, 4(2), 217-229; doi:10.3390/insects4020217
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 25 April 2013 / Published: 30 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (242 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was [...] Read more.
The toxicity of Pinus densiflora (red pine) hydrodistillate, its 19 constituents and 28 structurally related compounds against early third-instar larvae of Aedes albopictus (Ae. albopictus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Culex pipiens palles (Cx. p. pallens) was examined using direct-contact bioassays. The efficacy of active compounds was further evaluated in semi-field bioassays using field-collected larval Cx. p. pallens. Results were compared with those of two synthetic larvicides, temephos and fenthion. In laboratory bioassays, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate was found to have 24 h LC50 values of 20.33, 21.01 and 22.36 mg/L against larval Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. p. pallens respectively. Among the identified compounds, thymol, δ-3-carene and (+)-limonene exhibited the highest toxicity against all three mosquito species. These active compounds were found to be nearly equally effective in field trials as well. In vitro bioassays were conducted to examine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of 10 selected compounds. Results showed that there is a noticeable correlation between larvicidal activity and AChE inhibitory activity. In light of global efforts to find alternatives for currently used insecticides against disease vector mosquitoes, Pinus densiflora hydrodistillate and its constituents merit further research as potential mosquito larvicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pest Control and Management)
Open AccessArticle Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric
Insects 2013, 4(2), 230-240; doi:10.3390/insects4020230
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 17 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius). The aim of our study was to evaluate responses [...] Read more.
ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius). The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management
Insects 2013, 4(2), 241-272; doi:10.3390/insects4020241
Received: 27 March 2013 / Revised: 9 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white [...] Read more.
The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Blood Regimen on the Survival of Cimex lectularius L. Using Life Table Parameters
Insects 2013, 4(2), 273-286; doi:10.3390/insects4020273
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 16 May 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (160 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS) and field strain (ECL-05) of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) reared [...] Read more.
Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS) and field strain (ECL-05) of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. Harlan and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. Egg to adult development of HS bed bugs reared on human blood (~35 days) was significantly longer than that of the ECL-05 strain (~33 days) in the third, fourth, and fifth instars. The HS and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on rabbit blood had a life expectancy of 149 and 174 days respectively. Egg to adult development time of HS on rabbit blood (~52 days) was significantly longer than ECL-05 (~37 days) in every instar, and HS total life span was significantly shorter compared to ECL-05. Developmental differences based on strain and blood regimen suggest rabbit blood is an inferior blood source for colony maintenance, and strain has variable effects on bed bug development. Findings suggest that blood regimen should strongly be considered in bed bug colony maintenance. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Update on the Status of Bemisia tabaci in the UK and the Use of Entomopathogenic Fungi within Eradication Programmes
Insects 2013, 4(2), 198-205; doi:10.3390/insects4020198
Received: 22 March 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 16 May 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) continues to be a serious threat to crops worldwide. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of [...] Read more.
The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) continues to be a serious threat to crops worldwide. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. Both B and Q Bemisia biotypes are now regularly intercepted entering the UK. With increasing reports of neonicotinoid resistance in both these biotypes, it is becoming more problematic to control/eradicate. Therefore, alternative means of control are necessary. Entomopathogenic fungi (Lecanicilllium muscarium and Beauveria bassiana) offer much potential as control agents of B. tabaci within eradication programmes in the UK. Full article
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