Insects 2012, 3(2), 553-572; doi:10.3390/insects3020553
Review

Endosymbiont Tolerance and Control within Insect Hosts

1email, 1email and 2,* email
Received: 21 April 2012; in revised form: 31 May 2012 / Accepted: 5 June 2012 / Published: 15 June 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insect Immunity)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Bacterial endosymbioses are very common in insects and can range from obligate to facultative as well as from mutualistic to pathogenic associations. Several recent studies provide new insight into how endosymbionts manage to establish chronic infections of their hosts without being eliminated by the host immune system. Endosymbiont tolerance may be achieved either by specific bacterial adaptations or by host measurements shielding bacteria from innate defense mechanisms. Nevertheless, insect hosts also need to sustain control mechanisms to prevent endosymbionts from unregulated proliferation. Emerging evidence indicates that in some cases the mutual adaptations of the two organisms may have led to the integration of the endosymbionts as a part of the host immune system. In fact, endosymbionts may provide protective traits against pathogens and predators and may even be required for the proper development of the host immune system during host ontogeny. This review gives an overview of current knowledge of molecular mechanisms ensuring maintenance of chronic infections with mutualistic endosymbionts and the impact of endosymbionts on host immune competence.
Keywords: insects; immune response; endosymbiosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ratzka, C.; Gross, R.; Feldhaar, H. Endosymbiont Tolerance and Control within Insect Hosts . Insects 2012, 3, 553-572.

AMA Style

Ratzka C, Gross R, Feldhaar H. Endosymbiont Tolerance and Control within Insect Hosts . Insects. 2012; 3(2):553-572.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ratzka, Carolin; Gross, Roy; Feldhaar, Heike. 2012. " Endosymbiont Tolerance and Control within Insect Hosts ." Insects 3, no. 2: 553-572.

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