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Lubricants, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) In terms of tribofilm formation, zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) is a popular lubricant [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Field Tests on Hydrodynamic and Hybrid Operation of a Bidirectional Thrust Bearing of a Pump-Turbine
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 14 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
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Abstract
In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from
[...] Read more.
In vertical shaft pump turbines operating in pumped storage power plants an important role is played by a thrust bearing. Due to the bidirectional character of operation, thrust bearing tilting pads have to be supported symmetrically, which is known to be unfavourable from the point of view of their performance. Large thrust bearings have to be carefully designed so as to minimise excessive thermo-elastic pad deformations. The research into fluid film thrust bearings has been quite extensive over the years, comprising theoretical studies of bearing properties with the use of more and more sophisticated calculation codes. On the other hand, the availability of experimental field data on bearing operation is limited, for obvious reasons. In this paper the authors present part of the results of extensive field tests of a large bearing of a pump-turbine they have conducted in a pumped storage power plant. Hopefully this data will be of interest to other researchers to compare theoretical predictions to measurement data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Sliding Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle Damage Equivalent Test Methodologies as Design Elements for Journal Bearing Systems
Received: 31 October 2017 / Revised: 29 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 December 2017 / Published: 14 December 2017
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Abstract
The current paper addresses the field of experimental research of journal bearing systems. In this regard, the challenges are dealt with concerning simultaneous testing with a close correlation to the industrial application and with a high resolution of tribological processes. Concerning this aspect,
[...] Read more.
The current paper addresses the field of experimental research of journal bearing systems. In this regard, the challenges are dealt with concerning simultaneous testing with a close correlation to the industrial application and with a high resolution of tribological processes. Concerning this aspect, two damage equivalent laboratory test methodologies for journal slide bearing systems are presented, and their ability to visualize certain performance parameters of bearing systems are emphasized (for instance friction performance, (start stop) wear processes, and seizure events). The results clearly emphasize that the applied methodologies provide accurate findings regarding specific effects of selective parameters/changes on the performance of bearing systems, such as polymer overlays may result in improved mixed friction sliding conditions if designed properly, and they provide superior start stop wear resistance; the use of specific corrosion inhibitors can successfully prevent tribo-corrosion on bronze bearings; a decrease of oil viscosity increases solid friction share but decreases fluid friction; lubricant anti-wear additives are able to improve seizure resistance and sliding properties of bearing systems depending on formulation harmonization; and novel bearing material coatings, e.g., sputtered SnCu, can significantly improve emergency running capabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction and Lubrication of Sliding Bearings)
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Open AccessArticle The Evaluation of Linear Complementarity Problem Method in Modeling the Fluid Cavitation for Squeeze Film Damper with Off-Centered Whirling Motion
Received: 4 November 2017 / Revised: 23 November 2017 / Accepted: 24 November 2017 / Published: 28 November 2017
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Abstract
For the application of squeeze film damper (SFD) in aero-engine, a cavitation model is evaluated by means of linear complementarity problem (LCP) method. Different from the conventional SFD study that employs circular-center orbits (CCOs), a realistic condition is explored where the shaft whirling
[...] Read more.
For the application of squeeze film damper (SFD) in aero-engine, a cavitation model is evaluated by means of linear complementarity problem (LCP) method. Different from the conventional SFD study that employs circular-center orbits (CCOs), a realistic condition is explored where the shaft whirling center and bearing center are misaligned. Taking into account the fluid as incompressible and compressible, the governing equations, including film cavitation, are respectively solved by developing an algorithm using the LCP method. The numerical results are compared with experimental data and the effectiveness of the model is verified. The proposed model can provide some references to investigate the competency of this cavitation method in SFDs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Reduction of the Adhesive Friction of Elastomers through Laser Texturing of Injection Molds
Received: 16 October 2017 / Revised: 13 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
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Abstract
It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order
[...] Read more.
It is well known that elastomers usually possess poor dry sliding friction properties due to their highly adhesive character. In order to overcome this problematic behavior in industrial applications, interfacial materials such as oils, greases, coatings, or lacks are normally used in order to separate or to functionalize the contact surfaces of elastomers. Alternatively, the high adhesion tendency of elastomers may be explicitly reduced by modifying the elastomer composition itself or by enabling a reduction of its effective contact area through, for example, surface laser texturing. This second approach, i.e., the reduction of the adhesive character of elastomers through laser structuring, will be the main topic of the present study. For this purpose, different micro-sized grooved structures were produced on flat injection molds using an ultra-short pulsed laser. The micro-structured molds were then used to produce injection molded micro-ridged Liquid Silicone Rubber (LSR) sample pads. The investigations consisted firstly of determining the degree of replication of the mold micro-structures onto the surface of the LSR pads and secondly, to ascertain the degree of reduction of the friction force (or coefficient of friction) of these micro-ridged LSR pads in comparison to the benchmark (unstructured LSR pads) when tested under dry conditions against Aluminum alloy (Al-6082) or PA6.6-GF30 plates. For this second part of the investigation, the normal force (or contact pressure) dependency of the coefficient of friction was determined through stepwise load increasing friction tests. The results of these investigations have shown that the production of micro-ridged surfaces on LSR pads through laser structuring of the injection molds could be successfully achieved and that it enables a significant reduction of the friction force for low normal forces (or contact pressures), where the component of adhesion friction is playing an important and determining role in the overall friction behavior of the LSR elastomer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Friction and Wear by Laser Surface Texturing)
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Open AccessReview Chemically Modifying Vegetable Oils to Prepare Green Lubricants
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 4 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
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Abstract
Chemically modifying vegetable oils to produce an alternative to petroleum-based materials is one of the most important emerging industrial research areas today because of the adverse effects of petroleum products on the environment and the shortage of petroleum resources. Biolubricants, bioplasticizers, non-isocyanate polyurethanes,
[...] Read more.
Chemically modifying vegetable oils to produce an alternative to petroleum-based materials is one of the most important emerging industrial research areas today because of the adverse effects of petroleum products on the environment and the shortage of petroleum resources. Biolubricants, bioplasticizers, non-isocyanate polyurethanes, biofuel, coating materials, biocomposites, and other value-added chemicals can easily be produced by chemically modifying vegetable oils. This short review discusses using vegetable oils or their derivatives to prepare lubricants that are environmentally safe. Chemically modified vegetable oils are generally used as base fluids to formulate environmentally friendly lubricants. Reports of their application as sustainable additives have attracted special attention recently because of their enhanced multifunctional performances (single additives perform several functions, i.e., viscosity index improver, pour point depressant, antiwear products) and biodegradability compared with commercial additives. Here, we have reviewed the use of chemically modified vegetable oils as base fluids and additives to prepare a cost-effective and environmentally friendly lubricant composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Chemistry in Lubrication)
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Lubricant Inertia Effects for Squeeze Film Dampers Incorporated into High-Speed Turbomachinery
Received: 12 September 2017 / Revised: 24 October 2017 / Accepted: 29 October 2017 / Published: 31 October 2017
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Abstract
This work proposes a numerical model that incorporates the effect of lubricant inertia on the hydrodynamic pressure distribution, fluid film reaction forces, and the fluid velocity component profiles for finite-length open-ended squeeze film dampers (SFDs). Firstly, the thin film flow equations for the
[...] Read more.
This work proposes a numerical model that incorporates the effect of lubricant inertia on the hydrodynamic pressure distribution, fluid film reaction forces, and the fluid velocity component profiles for finite-length open-ended squeeze film dampers (SFDs). Firstly, the thin film flow equations for the SFD in presence of fluid inertia effects are introduced. Furthermore, a small first-order perturbation by means of the expressions for the fluid film velocity components and the lubricant pressure distribution that are expanded in power series of the squeeze film Reynolds number is applied to the flow equations. Subsequently the developed lubricant flow equations are solved to develop expressions for the velocity component profiles and the hydrodynamic pressure distribution in SFDs. The pressure expression is numerically solved by using Gauss–Seidel method with finite difference discretization. Moreover, the fluid film reaction forces are determined by numerically integrating the hydrodynamic pressure expressions over the journal surface. Additionally, the proposed pressure distribution expression and the numerical SFD forces are incorporated into a simulation model and the simulation results are compared with the existing models in the literature under different operating conditions, including eccentricity ratios and inertia effects (i.e., Reynolds numbers). The simulation results demonstrate the significant influence of both convective and temporal (i.e., unsteady) lubricant inertia terms on the SFD hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the fluid film reaction forces. Furthermore, the proposed SFD model is incorporated into a multi-mass flexible rotordynamic model to evaluate the effect of SFD fluid inertia on the mass unbalance induced steady-state vibrations of the rotor and the nodal transient orbits by implementing finite element method and transient modal integration with predictor–corrector solver. The results of the analysis demonstrate the significant effect of fluid inertia on the resonance frequencies of the rotor and the steady-state vibration amplitudes and the transient orbits at the resonance zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bearings in Turbomachinery)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis of Grease Friction Properties on Sliding Textured Surfaces
Received: 4 October 2017 / Revised: 20 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
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Abstract
There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease
[...] Read more.
There is comprehensive work on the tribological properties and lubrication mechanisms of oil lubricant used on textured surfaces, however the use of grease lubrication on textured surfaces is rather new. This research article presents an experimental study of the frictional behaviours of grease lubricated sliding contact under mixed lubrication conditions. The influences of surface texture parameters on the frictional properties were investigated using a disc-on-ring tribometer. The results showed that the friction coefficient is largely dependent on texture parameters, with higher and lower texture density resulting in a higher friction coefficient at a fixed texture depth. The sample with texture density of 15% and texture depth of 19 μm exhibited the best friction properties in all experimental conditions because it can store more grease and trap wear debris. The reduction of friction is mainly attributable to the formation of a stable grease lubrication film composed of oil film, transfer film and deposited film, and the hydrodynamic pressure effect of the surface texture, which increases the mating gap and reduces the probability of asperity contact. This result will help in understanding the tribological behaviour of grease on a textured surface and in predicting the lubrication conditions of sliding bearings for better operation in any machinery. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Non-Uniform Laser Surface Texturing of an Un-Tapered Square Pad for Tribological Applications
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 4 October 2017 / Accepted: 6 October 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
Femtosecond laser surface micro-texturing has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the tribological properties of different kinds of electromechanical devices. In this research paper, we have exploited the intrinsic flexibility and micrometric accuracy of femtosecond laser ablation to realize complex micro-structural modifications
[...] Read more.
Femtosecond laser surface micro-texturing has emerged as a promising technology to enhance the tribological properties of different kinds of electromechanical devices. In this research paper, we have exploited the intrinsic flexibility and micrometric accuracy of femtosecond laser ablation to realize complex micro-structural modifications on the surface of a laboratory prototype of a steel thrust bearing (un-tapered) pad. The Bruggeman Texture Hydrodynamics theory (BTH) is employed for the design of the anisotropic and non-uniform texture maximizing the thrust load of the pad prototype. The preliminary experimental results, reported in this work, show that the non-uniform micro-texture largely affects the friction characteristics of the contact. In particular, in agreement with the BTH predictions, the tribo-system shows friction properties that are strongly sensitive to the direction of the sliding speed, as a consequence of the micro-fluid dynamics which are designed to occur only in a specific sliding direction. We suggest that the joint action of virtual prototyping (BTH lubrication theory) and ultrafast laser micro-prototyping can lead to unconventional and impressive results in terms of enhanced or tailored contact mechanics properties of the generic lubricated tribopair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Friction and Wear by Laser Surface Texturing)
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Open AccessCorrection Correction: Zhou, J.; et al. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing. Lubricants 2015, 3, 3–13
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 28 September 2017 / Published: 17 October 2017
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Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [1]. In Table 2, the tensile strength (100 °C) of Babbitt is 40 MPa, not 45 MPa[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Sealing of Dry Particles with Grease-Filled Non-Contacting Sealing Systems
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
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Abstract
There is no wear and no friction with non-contacting sealing systems. Because of this, there is in principle no lifetime-limit. However, this does not apply for grease-filled labyrinth seals. To seal against particles, the grease inside the gaps of the seal has to
[...] Read more.
There is no wear and no friction with non-contacting sealing systems. Because of this, there is in principle no lifetime-limit. However, this does not apply for grease-filled labyrinth seals. To seal against particles, the grease inside the gaps of the seal has to bind pollution particles and the grease-filled gap must be opened. If the surfaces of the grease layers in the gaps are saturated with particles, further particles penetrating the sealing system can no longer be bound. The seal must then be relubricated. Based on the actual state of the art, this work shows the latest results of experiments to enable designers to unerringly develop non-contacting sealing systems with grease-filled gaps to seal dry particles with reliable function. To that end, a lot of experiments were done to expand existing design guidelines. Additionally, new operating instruction were found to ensure permanent operation. A possibility to reduce the complexity of the sealing system is presented at the end of the present work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lubricating Greases 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Growth of ZDDP-Based Tribofilms on Laser-Interference Patterned Cylinder Roller Bearings
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 11 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 25 September 2017
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Abstract
Laser surface texturing has been successfully applied in the past to various machine elements in order to improve their tribological performance. In this study, direct laser interference patterning was used to produce periodic cross-like surface patterns on commercial cylinder roller bearings. The wear
[...] Read more.
Laser surface texturing has been successfully applied in the past to various machine elements in order to improve their tribological performance. In this study, direct laser interference patterning was used to produce periodic cross-like surface patterns on commercial cylinder roller bearings. The wear behavior of as-patterned bearings was studied by a modified FE8 test rig under boundary lubrication. A mineral oil (ISO VG 100) as a base oil additivated with 0.02 wt % zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) was used for the tribological tests which were performed under a Hertzian pressure of 1.92 GPa and maintained at 80 °C and 20 rpm for 2 h. The laser-patterned bearings showed a significantly reduced mass loss by two orders of magnitude compared to the unpatterned reference bearings. A closer look at the samples proved the formation of the characteristic blue-colored ZDDP tribofilm on top of the laser-induced topography maximum positions. Due to the higher contact pressure at the laser-induced peaks, the tribofilm formation was preferable at those positions thus protecting against wear. The laser patterns nearly remained unworn compared to the reference samples. A subsequent Raman analysis of the laser-patterned bearings clearly revealed the formation of zinc and iron sulfides as well as phosphates at the peak points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Improvement of Friction and Wear by Laser Surface Texturing)
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