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Lubricants 2014, 2(4), 206-222; doi:10.3390/lubricants2040206

Modeling and Forecasting of Depletion of Additives in Car Engine Oils Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fast Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

1
Department of Earth Resources Engineering, Resources Production and Safety Engineering Laboratory, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
2
Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, North Wing UCSI University, Cheras 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Division of Manufacturing and Industrial Process, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Broga, 43500 Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lubricity in Fuel)
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Abstract

On average, additives make up to 7% of a typical lubricant base. Commonly, they are blended with lube oils to enhance specific features thereby improving their qualities. Ultimately, additives participate in the performance of car engine oils. Using an analytical tool, attenuated total reflectance fast transform infrared spectroscopy, various grades of car engine oils, at different mileages, were analyzed. Sulfate oxidation and wear were found to trigger chemical processes which, in the long run, cause lubricant degradation while carbonyl oxidation was observed to occur only at a slow rate. Based upon data obtained from infrared spectra and using a curve fitting technique, mathematical equations predicting the theoretical rates of chemical change due to the aforementioned processes were examined. Additive depletions were found to obey exponential regression rather than polynomial. Moreover, breakpoint (breakpoint is used here to denote the initiation of deterioration of additives) and critical mileage (critical mileage defines the distance at which the lubricant is chemically unusable) of both samples were determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive degradation; antioxidants; antiwear additives; sulfonate detergents antioxidants; FTIR additive degradation; antioxidants; antiwear additives; sulfonate detergents antioxidants; FTIR
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nguele, R.; Al-Salim, H.S.; Mohammad, K. Modeling and Forecasting of Depletion of Additives in Car Engine Oils Using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fast Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Lubricants 2014, 2, 206-222.

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