Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85740 Garching, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Duncan A. Forbes and Ericson D. Lopez
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 4 August 2017
Stellar shells are low surface brightness arcs of overdense stellar regions, extending to large galactocentric distances. In a companion study, we identified 39 shell galaxies in a sample of 220 massive ellipticals (
) from the Illustris cosmological simulation. We used stellar history catalogs to trace the history of each individual star particle inside the shell substructures, and we found that shells in high-mass galaxies form through mergers with massive satellites (stellar mass ratios
). Using the same sample of shell galaxies, the current study extends the stellar history catalogs in order to investigate the metallicity of stellar shells around massive galaxies. Our results indicate that outer shells are often times more metal-rich than the surrounding stellar material in a galaxy’s halo. For a galaxy with two different satellites forming
shells, we find a significant difference in the metallicity of the shells produced by each progenitor. We also find that shell galaxies have higher mass-weighted logarithmic metallicities ([Z/H]) at 2–
compared to galaxies without shells. Our results indicate that observations comparing the metallicities of stars in tidal features, such as shells, to the average metallicities in the stellar halo can provide information about the assembly histories of galaxies.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
Share & Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Pop, A.-R.; Pillepich, A.; Amorisco, N.C.; Hernquist, L. Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures. Galaxies 2017, 5, 34.
Pop A-R, Pillepich A, Amorisco NC, Hernquist L. Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures. Galaxies. 2017; 5(3):34.
Pop, Ana-Roxana; Pillepich, Annalisa; Amorisco, Nicola C.; Hernquist, Lars. 2017. "Galaxies with Shells in the Illustris Simulation: Metallicity Signatures." Galaxies 5, no. 3: 34.
Show more citation formats
Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.
[Return to top]
For more information on the journal statistics, click here
Multiple requests from the same IP address are counted as one view.