Next Article in Journal
A Phase I Study of High-Dose Calcitriol in Combination with Temozolomide for Patients with Metastatic Melanoma
Previous Article in Journal
mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer beyond Biomarkers: The Evolving Landscape of Clinical Trial Design
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
J. Pers. Med. 2014, 4(3), 424-447;

Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri-Columbia, S235 School of Nursing Building, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Lymphedema Research Laboratory, Sinclair School of Nursing, University of Missouri, DC 116.05, Suite 408, Mizzou North Campus, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Ellis Fischel Cancer Center, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2014 / Revised: 1 July 2014 / Accepted: 6 August 2014 / Published: 18 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized Cancer Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [626 KB, uploaded 18 August 2014]   |  


Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer-related lymphedema; surveillance; risk-reduction; self-management breast cancer-related lymphedema; surveillance; risk-reduction; self-management

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ostby, P.L.; Armer, J.M.; Dale, P.S.; Van Loo, M.J.; Wilbanks, C.L.; Stewart, B.R. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema. J. Pers. Med. 2014, 4, 424-447.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
J. Pers. Med. EISSN 2075-4426 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top