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Diagnostics 2018, 8(1), 5; doi:10.3390/diagnostics8010005

Label-Free Sensors Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Cancer Risk Biomarker

1
Wolfson Nanomaterials and Devices Laboratory, School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University (KAU), Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Owen J. Guy
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 27 December 2017 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 8 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Biosensors in Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2994 KB, uploaded 9 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

We report on the development of label-free chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene field effect transistor (GFET) immunosensors for the sensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), a glycoprotein risk biomarker of certain cancers. The GFET sensors were fabricated on Si/SiO2 substrate using photolithography with evaporated chromium and sputtered gold contacts. GFET channels were functionalised with a linker molecule to an immobile anti-hCG antibody on the surface of graphene. The binding reaction of the antibody with varying concentration levels of hCG antigen demonstrated the limit of detection of the GFET sensors to be below 1 pg/mL using four-probe electrical measurements. We also show that annealing can significantly improve the carrier transport properties of GFETs and shift the Dirac point (Fermi level) with reduced p-doping in back-gated measurements. The developed GFET biosensors are generic and could find applications in a broad range of medical diagnostics in addition to cancer, such as neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s ) and cardiovascular disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; electrochemical biosensors; cancer; diagnosis; electrical detection; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular; blood biomarkers; antibodies; proteins graphene; electrochemical biosensors; cancer; diagnosis; electrical detection; Alzheimer’s disease; dementia; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular; blood biomarkers; antibodies; proteins
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Haslam, C.; Damiati, S.; Whitley, T.; Davey, P.; Ifeachor, E.; Awan, S.A. Label-Free Sensors Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistors for the Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Cancer Risk Biomarker. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 5.

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