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Diagnostics 2018, 8(1), 12; doi:10.3390/diagnostics8010012

Sensing Technologies for Detection of Acetone in Human Breath for Diabetes Diagnosis and Monitoring

1
DST/CSIR, PO BOX 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2
Departmentof Biochemistry, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
3
Department of Biochemistry, University of Limpopo, P/Bag x1106, Sovenga 0727, South Africa
4
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 29 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section In Vitro Diagnostics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [517 KB, uploaded 31 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The review describes the technologies used in the field of breath analysis to diagnose and monitor diabetes mellitus. Currently the diagnosis and monitoring of blood glucose and ketone bodies that are used in clinical studies involve the use of blood tests. This method entails pricking fingers for a drop of blood and placing a drop on a sensitive area of a strip which is pre-inserted into an electronic reading instrument. Furthermore, it is painful, invasive and expensive, and can be unsafe if proper handling is not undertaken. Human breath analysis offers a non-invasive and rapid method for detecting various volatile organic compounds thatare indicators for different diseases. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone. Acetone is exhaled during respiration. The production of acetone is a result of the body metabolising fats instead of glucose to produce energy. There are various techniques that are used to analyse exhaled breath including Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS), Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR–MS), Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT–MS), laser photoacoustic spectrometry and so on. All these techniques are not portable, therefore this review places emphasis on how nanotechnology, through semiconductor sensing nanomaterials, has the potential to help individuals living with diabetes mellitus monitor their disease with cheap and portable devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes mellitus; breath analysis; non-invasive diagnosis; nanomaterials; chemoresistivesensors; acetone detection diabetes mellitus; breath analysis; non-invasive diagnosis; nanomaterials; chemoresistivesensors; acetone detection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Saasa, V.; Malwela, T.; Beukes, M.; Mokgotho, M.; Liu, C.-P.; Mwakikunga, B. Sensing Technologies for Detection of Acetone in Human Breath for Diabetes Diagnosis and Monitoring. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 12.

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