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Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 2; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010002

Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers

Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Owen J. Guy
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 26 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Biosensors in Diagnostics)
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Abstract

Early diagnosis is often the key to successful patient treatment and survival. The identification of various disease signaling biomarkers which reliably reflect normal and disease states in humans in biological fluids explain the burgeoning research field in developing new methodologies able to determine the target biomarkers in complex biological samples with the required sensitivity and selectivity and in a simple and rapid way. The unique advantages offered by electrochemical sensors together with the availability of high affinity and specific bioreceptors and their great capabilities in terms of sensitivity and stability imparted by nanostructuring the electrode surface with different carbon nanomaterials have led to the development of new electrochemical biosensing strategies that have flourished as interesting alternatives to conventional methodologies for clinical diagnostics. This paper briefly reviews the advantages of using carbon nanostructures and their hybrid nanocomposites as electrode modifiers to construct efficient electrochemical sensing platforms for diagnosis. The review provides an updated overview of some selected examples involving attractive amplification and biosensing approaches which have been applied to the determination of relevant genetic and protein diagnostics biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrochemical affinity biosensors; diagnosis; carbon nanostructures; graphene; oligonucleotides; proteins; antibodies electrochemical affinity biosensors; diagnosis; carbon nanostructures; graphene; oligonucleotides; proteins; antibodies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Campuzano, S.; Yáñez-Sedeño, P.; Pingarrón, J.M. Diagnostics Strategies with Electrochemical Affinity Biosensors Using Carbon Nanomaterials as Electrode Modifiers. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 2.

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