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Diagnostics 2017, 7(1), 1; doi:10.3390/diagnostics7010001

Fatty Acids in Membranes as Homeostatic, Metabolic and Nutritional Biomarkers: Recent Advancements in Analytics and Diagnostics

1
ISOF, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 40129 Bologna, Italy
2
Lipinutragen srl, Via di Corticella 181/4, 40128 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ludmilla A. Morozova-Roche
Received: 5 August 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Blood 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2030 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Fatty acids, as structural components of membranes and inflammation/anti-inflammatory mediators, have well-known protective and regulatory effects. They are studied as biomarkers of pathological conditions, as well as saturated and unsaturated hydrophobic moieties in membrane phospholipids that contribute to homeostasis and physiological functions. Lifestyle, nutrition, metabolism and stress—with an excess of radical and oxidative processes—cause fatty acid changes that are examined in the human body using blood lipids. Fatty acid-based membrane lipidomics represents a powerful diagnostic tool for assessing the quantity and quality of fatty acid constituents and also for the follow-up of the membrane fatty acid remodeling that is associated with different physiological and pathological conditions. This review focuses on fatty acid biomarkers with two examples of recent lipidomic research and health applications: (i) monounsaturated fatty acids and the analytical challenge offered by hexadecenoic fatty acids (C16:1); and (ii) the cohort of 10 fatty acids in phospholipids of red blood cell membranes and its connections to metabolic and nutritional status in healthy and diseased subjects. View Full-Text
Keywords: sapienic acid; palmitoleic acid; membrane lipidomics; red blood cell membrane; fatty acid balance; gas chromatographic resolution; geometrical and positional isomers; membrane fatty acid biomarker sapienic acid; palmitoleic acid; membrane lipidomics; red blood cell membrane; fatty acid balance; gas chromatographic resolution; geometrical and positional isomers; membrane fatty acid biomarker
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ferreri, C.; Masi, A.; Sansone, A.; Giacometti, G.; Larocca, A.V.; Menounou, G.; Scanferlato, R.; Tortorella, S.; Rota, D.; Conti, M.; Deplano, S.; Louka, M.; Maranini, A.R.; Salati, A.; Sunda, V.; Chatgilialoglu, C. Fatty Acids in Membranes as Homeostatic, Metabolic and Nutritional Biomarkers: Recent Advancements in Analytics and Diagnostics. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 1.

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