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Diagnostics 2015, 5(4), 513-545; doi:10.3390/diagnostics5040513

Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, Tuebingen 72076, Germany
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philippe L. Pereira
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma)
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Abstract

Early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for optimizing treatment outcome. Ongoing advances are being made in imaging of HCC regarding detection, grading, staging, and also treatment monitoring. This review gives an overview of the current international guidelines for diagnosing HCC and their discrepancies as well as critically summarizes the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) techniques for imaging in HCC. The diagnostic performance of MRI with nonspecific and hepatobililiary contrast agents and the role of functional imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging will be discussed. On the other hand, CT as a fast, cheap and easily accessible imaging modality plays a major role in the clinical routine work-up of HCC. Technical advances in CT, such as dual energy CT and volume perfusion CT, are currently being explored for improving detection, characterization and staging of HCC with promising results. Cone beam CT can provide a three-dimensional analysis of the liver with tumor and vessel characterization comparable to cross-sectional imaging so that this technique is gaining an increasing role in the peri-procedural imaging of HCC treated with interventional techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma; magnetic resonance imaging; guidelines; diffusion-weighted imaging; dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; computed tomography; dual-energy computed tomography; volume perfusion computed tomography; contrast media; hepatocyte specific contrast media hepatocellular carcinoma; magnetic resonance imaging; guidelines; diffusion-weighted imaging; dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; computed tomography; dual-energy computed tomography; volume perfusion computed tomography; contrast media; hepatocyte specific contrast media
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schraml, C.; Kaufmann, S.; Rempp, H.; Syha, R.; Ketelsen, D.; Notohamiprodjo, M.; Nikolaou, K. Imaging of HCC—Current State of the Art. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 513-545.

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