Diagnostics 2014, 4(2), 27-46; doi:10.3390/diagnostics4020027

Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies

1email, 2email and 2,* email
Received: 26 February 2014; in revised form: 5 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue In Vitro Diagnostics)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring.
Keywords: blood; urine; sweat; saliva; tears; breath; diabetes; glucose; sensing; nano-material; monitoring; non-invasive
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MDPI and ACS Style

Makaram, P.; Owens, D.; Aceros, J. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies. Diagnostics 2014, 4, 27-46.

AMA Style

Makaram P, Owens D, Aceros J. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies. Diagnostics. 2014; 4(2):27-46.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Makaram, Prashanth; Owens, Dawn; Aceros, Juan. 2014. "Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies." Diagnostics 4, no. 2: 27-46.

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