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Diagnostics, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2012), Pages 23-41

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Research

Open AccessArticle Comparison of 1-Ethyl-3-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl) Carbodiimide Based Strategies to Crosslink Antibodies on Amine-Functionalized Platforms for Immunodiagnostic Applications
Diagnostics 2012, 2(3), 23-33; doi:10.3390/diagnostics2030023
Received: 13 July 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (151 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) alone, and in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) or sulfoNHS were employed for crosslinking anti-human fetuin A (HFA) antibodies on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gold chip and 96-well microtiter plate. The SPR immunoassay and sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent [...] Read more.
1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) alone, and in combination with N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) or sulfoNHS were employed for crosslinking anti-human fetuin A (HFA) antibodies on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-functionalized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gold chip and 96-well microtiter plate. The SPR immunoassay and sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent immunoassay (ELISA) for HFA clearly demonstrated that EDC crosslinks anti-HFA antibodies to APTES-functionalized bioanalytical platforms more efficiently than EDC/NHS and EDC/sulfoNHS at a normal pH of 7.4. Similar results were obtained by sandwich ELISAs for human Lipocalin-2 and human albumin, and direct ELISA for horseradish peroxidase. The more efficient crosslinking of antibodies by EDC to the APTES-functionalized platforms increased the cost-effectiveness and analytical performance of our immunoassays. This study will be of wide interest to researchers developing immunoassays on APTES-functionalized platforms that are being widely used in biomedical diagnostics, biosensors, lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care-devices. It stresses a critical need of an intensive investigation into the mechanisms of EDC-based amine-carboxyl coupling under various experimental conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Improving Accuracy for Image Fusion in Abdominal Ultrasonography
Diagnostics 2012, 2(3), 34-41; doi:10.3390/diagnostics2030034
Received: 27 June 2012 / Revised: 30 July 2012 / Accepted: 22 August 2012 / Published: 27 August 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Image fusion involving real-time ultrasound (US) is a technique where previously recorded computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images (MRI) are reformatted in a projection to fit the real-time US images after an initial co-registration. The co-registration aligns the images by means [...] Read more.
Image fusion involving real-time ultrasound (US) is a technique where previously recorded computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance images (MRI) are reformatted in a projection to fit the real-time US images after an initial co-registration. The co-registration aligns the images by means of common planes or points. We evaluated the accuracy of the alignment when varying parameters as patient position, respiratory phase and distance from the co-registration points/planes. We performed a total of 80 co-registrations and obtained the highest accuracy when the respiratory phase for the co-registration procedure was the same as when the CT or MRI was obtained. Furthermore, choosing co-registration points/planes close to the area of interest also improved the accuracy. With all settings optimized a mean error of 3.2 mm was obtained. We conclude that image fusion involving real-time US is an accurate method for abdominal examinations and that the accuracy is influenced by various adjustable factors that should be kept in mind. Full article

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