Next Article in Journal
On the Origin of Sequence
Next Article in Special Issue
tRNA-Derived Fragments (tRFs): Emerging New Roles for an Ancient RNA in the Regulation of Gene Expression
Previous Article in Journal
Starvation-Survival in Haloarchaea
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Conserved Residues in Clostridium acetobutylicum tRNAAla Contribute to tRNA Tuning for Efficient Antitermination of the alaS T Box Riboswitch
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Life 2015, 5(4), 1610-1628; doi:10.3390/life5041610

Non-Standard Genetic Codes Define New Concepts for Protein Engineering

Health Sciences Department, Institute for Biomedicine—iBiMED, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, Aveiro 3810-193, Portugal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lluís Ribas de Pouplana
Received: 24 August 2015 / Revised: 12 October 2015 / Accepted: 21 October 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution of tRNA)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1555 KB, uploaded 12 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

The essential feature of the genetic code is the strict one-to-one correspondence between codons and amino acids. The canonical code consists of three stop codons and 61 sense codons that encode 20% of the amino acid repertoire observed in nature. It was originally designated as immutable and universal due to its conservation in most organisms, but sequencing of genes from the human mitochondrial genomes revealed deviations in codon assignments. Since then, alternative codes have been reported in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and genetic code engineering has become an important research field. Here, we review the most recent concepts arising from the study of natural non-standard genetic codes with special emphasis on codon re-assignment strategies that are relevant to engineering genetic code in the laboratory. Recent tools for synthetic biology and current attempts to engineer new codes for incorporation of non-standard amino acids are also reviewed in this article. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic code; evolution; codon reassignment; amino acids; biotechnology genetic code; evolution; codon reassignment; amino acids; biotechnology
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bezerra, A.R.; Guimarães, A.R.; Santos, M.A.S. Non-Standard Genetic Codes Define New Concepts for Protein Engineering. Life 2015, 5, 1610-1628.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Life EISSN 2075-1729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top