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Life 2015, 5(1), 716-743; doi:10.3390/life5010716

Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins

Molecular Plant Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku, Finland
Current position: Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: John C. Meeks and Robert Haselkorn
Received: 19 December 2014 / Revised: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 25 February 2015 / Published: 9 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria: Ecology, Physiology and Genetics)
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Abstract

Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs) are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria) and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the “Mehler-like” reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavodiiron protein; flavoprotein; cyanobacteria; Mehler-like reaction; nitrogenase; photosystem; photodamage; electron transfer; photosynthesis; phycobilisome; photoprotection flavodiiron protein; flavoprotein; cyanobacteria; Mehler-like reaction; nitrogenase; photosystem; photodamage; electron transfer; photosynthesis; phycobilisome; photoprotection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Allahverdiyeva, Y.; Isojärvi, J.; Zhang, P.; Aro, E.-M. Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins. Life 2015, 5, 716-743.

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