Next Article in Journal
Function and Regulation of Ferredoxins in the Cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC6803: Recent Advances
Previous Article in Journal
Synergism and Mutualism in Non-Enzymatic RNA Polymerization
Previous Article in Special Issue
Space Radiation: The Number One Risk to Astronaut Health beyond Low Earth Orbit
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Life 2014, 4(4), 621-665; doi:10.3390/life4040621

Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes

1
NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
2
Universities Space Research Association, Division of Space Life Sciences, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, TX 77058, USA
3
NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, OH 44135, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 April 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response of Terrestrial Life to Space Conditions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4364 KB, uploaded 7 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Although changes to visual acuity in spaceflight have been observed in some astronauts since the early days of the space program, the impact to the crew was considered minor. Since that time, missions to the International Space Station have extended the typical duration of time spent in microgravity from a few days or weeks to many months. This has been accompanied by the emergence of a variety of ophthalmic pathologies in a significant proportion of long-duration crewmembers, including globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking, among others. The clinical findings of affected astronauts are reminiscent of terrestrial pathologies such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension that are characterized by high intracranial pressure. As a result, NASA has placed an emphasis on determining the relevant factors and their interactions that are responsible for detrimental ophthalmic response to space. This article will describe the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome, link it to key factors in physiological adaptation to the microgravity environment, particularly a cephalad shifting of bodily fluids, and discuss the implications for ocular biomechanics and physiological function in long-duration spaceflight. View Full-Text
Keywords: microgravity; aerospace medicine; visual impairment; intracranial pressure; cephalic fluid shift; gravitational physiology microgravity; aerospace medicine; visual impairment; intracranial pressure; cephalic fluid shift; gravitational physiology
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, E.S.; Mulugeta, L.; Myers, J.G. Microgravity-Induced Fluid Shift and Ophthalmic Changes. Life 2014, 4, 621-665.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Life EISSN 2075-1729 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top