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Machines 2016, 4(1), 9; doi:10.3390/machines4010009

One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance

1
Bioengineering Department, University of Pittsburgh, 302 Benedum Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, ORT Braude Academic College of Engineering, Snunit St 51, Karmiel 2161002, Israel
3
Biomedical Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
4
Psychology Department, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
5
Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Mba
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 11 March 2016 / Published: 21 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms and Machinery for Haptic Interaction and Rendering)
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Abstract

We report overall design considerations and preliminary results for a new haptic rendering device based on an audio loudspeaker. Our application models tissue properties during microsurgery. For example, the device could respond to the tip of a tool by simulating a particular tissue, displaying a desired compressibility and viscosity, giving way as the tissue is disrupted, or exhibiting independent motion, such as that caused by pulsations in blood pressure. Although limited to one degree of freedom and with a relatively small range of displacement compared to other available haptic rendering devices, our design exhibits high bandwidth, low friction, low hysteresis, and low mass. These features are consistent with modeling interactions with delicate tissues during microsurgery. In addition, our haptic rendering device is designed to be simple and inexpensive to manufacture, in part through an innovative method of measuring displacement by existing variations in the speaker’s inductance as the voice coil moves over the permanent magnet. Low latency and jitter are achieved by running the real-time simulation models on a dedicated microprocessor, while maintaining bidirectional communication with a standard laptop computer for user controls and data logging. View Full-Text
Keywords: haptics; loudspeaker; speaker; inductance; displacement; surgery; microsurgery haptics; loudspeaker; speaker; inductance; displacement; surgery; microsurgery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Khera, A.; Lee, R.; Marcovici, A.; Yu, Z.; Klatzky, R.; Siegel, M.; Shroff, S.G.; Stetten, G. One-Dimensional Haptic Rendering Using Audio Speaker with Displacement Determined by Inductance. Machines 2016, 4, 9.

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