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Minerals 2018, 8(8), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080337

The Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Alkali-Activated Binary Cements Developed by Combining Ceramic Sanitaryware with Fly Ash or Blast Furnace Slag

1
ICITECH—Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología del Hormigón, Grupo de Investigación en Química de los Materiales (GIQUIMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
EMC—Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón de la Plana, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 May 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers)
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Abstract

The properties of a binder developed by the alkali-activation of a single waste material can improve when it is blended with different industrial by-products. This research aimed to investigate the influence of blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) (0–50 wt %) on the microstructure and compressive strength of alkali-activated ceramic sanitaryware (CSW). 4 wt % Ca(OH)2 was added to the CSW/FA blended samples and, given the high calcium content of BFS, the influence of BFS was analyzed with and without adding Ca(OH)2. Mortars were used to assess the compressive strength of the blended cements, and their microstructure was investigated in pastes by X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. All the samples were cured at 20 °C for 28 and 90 days and at 65 °C for 7 days. The results show that the partial replacement of CSW with BFS or FA allowed CSW to be activated at 20 °C. The CSW/BFS systems exhibited better mechanical properties than the CSW/FA blended mortars, so that maximum strength values of 54.3 MPa and 29.4 MPa were obtained in the samples prepared with 50 wt % BFS and FA, respectively, cured at 20 °C for 90 days. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable construction materials; waste management; alkali-activated binder; fly ash; blast furnace slag; ceramic sanitaryware; mechanical strength; microstructure sustainable construction materials; waste management; alkali-activated binder; fly ash; blast furnace slag; ceramic sanitaryware; mechanical strength; microstructure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cosa, J.; Soriano, L.; Borrachero, M.V.; Reig, L.; Payá, J.; Monzó, J.M. The Compressive Strength and Microstructure of Alkali-Activated Binary Cements Developed by Combining Ceramic Sanitaryware with Fly Ash or Blast Furnace Slag. Minerals 2018, 8, 337.

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