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Minerals 2018, 8(8), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8080321

Sulfide Breccias from the Semenov-3 Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Authigenic Mineral Formation and Trace Element Pattern

1
Institute of Mineralogy, Urals Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Chelyabinsk District, Miass 456317, Russia
2
Faculty of Geology, South-Urals State University, 8 Iyulya st. 10, Chelyabinsk District, Miass 456301, Russia
3
Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova, Italy
4
Polar Marine Geosurvey Expedition, Pobedy st. 24, Lomonosov, St. Petersburg 198412, Russia
5
CODES ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 51, Hobart TAS, 7001, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep-Sea Minerals and Gas Hydrates)
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Abstract

The aim of this paper is the investigation of the role of diagenesis in the transformation of clastic sulfide sediments such as sulfide breccias from the Semenov-3 hydrothermal field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge). The breccias are composed of marcasite–pyrite clasts enclosed in a barite–sulfide–quartz matrix. Primary hydrothermal sulfides occur as colloform, fine-crystalline, porous and radial marcasite–pyrite clasts with inclusions or individual clasts of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, pyrrhotite, bornite, barite and rock-forming minerals. Diagenetic processes are responsible for the formation of more diverse authigenic mineralization including framboidal, ovoidal and nodular pyrite, coarse-crystalline pyrite and marcasite, anhedral and reniform chalcopyrite, inclusions of HgS phase and pyrrhotite–sphalerite–chalcopyrite aggregates in coarse-crystalline pyrite, zoned bornite–chalcopyrite grains, specular and globular hematite, tabular barite and quartz. The early diagenetic ovoid pyrite is enriched in most trace elements in contrast to late diagenetic varieties. Authigenic lower-temperature chalcopyrite is depleted in trace elements relative to high-temperature hydrothermal ones. Trace elements have different modes of occurrence: Se is hosted in pyrite and chalcopyrite; Tl is related to sphalerite and galena nanoinclusions; Au is associated with galena; As in pyrite is lattice-bound, whereas in chalcopyrite it is related to tetrahedrite–tennantite nanoinclusions; Cd in pyrite is hosted in sphalerite inclusions; Cd in chalcopyrite forms its own mineral; Co and Ni are hosted in chalcopyrite. View Full-Text
Keywords: authigenesis; diagenesis; LA-ICP-MS; sulfide hydrothermal fields; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; sulfide breccias; trace elements authigenesis; diagenesis; LA-ICP-MS; sulfide hydrothermal fields; Mid-Atlantic Ridge; sulfide breccias; trace elements
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Melekestseva, I.; Maslennikov, V.V.; Safina, N.P.; Nimis, P.; Maslennikova, S.; Beltenev, V.; Rozhdestvenskaya, I.; Danyushevsky, L.; Large, R.; Artemyev, D.; Kotlyarov, V.; Toffolo, L. Sulfide Breccias from the Semenov-3 Hydrothermal Field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Authigenic Mineral Formation and Trace Element Pattern. Minerals 2018, 8, 321.

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