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Minerals 2018, 8(4), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8040123

Influence of Addition of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Residue (FCC) and the SiO2 Concentration in Alkali-Activated Ceramic Sanitary-Ware (CSW) Binders

1
ICITECH—Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología del Hormigón, Grupo de Investigación en Química de los Materiales (GIQUIMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2
EMC—Department of Mechanical Engineering and Construction, Universitat Jaume I, 12071 Castellón de la Plana, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 17 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geopolymers)
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Abstract

Production of Portland cement requires a large volume of natural raw materials and releases huge amounts of CO2 to the atmosphere. Lower environmental impact alternatives focus on alkali-activated cements. In this paper, fluid catalytic cracking residue (FCC) was used to partially replace (0 wt %–50 wt %) ceramic sanitaryware (CSW) in alkali-activated systems. Samples were activated with NaOH and sodium silicate solutions and were cured at 65 °C for 7 days and at 20 °C for 28 and 90 days. In order to increase CSW/FCC binders’ sustainability, the influence of reducing the silica concentration (from 7.28 mol·kg−1 up to 2.91 mol·kg−1) was analyzed. The microstructure of the developed binders was investigated in pastes by X-ray diffraction, thermo tests and field emission scanning electron microscopy analyses. Compressive strength evolution was assessed in mortars. The results showed a synergetic effect of the CSW/FCC combinations so that, under the studied conditions, mechanical properties significantly improved when combining both waste materials (up to 70 MPa were achieved in the mortars containing 50 wt % FCC cured at room temperature for 90 days). Addition of FCC allowed CSW to be activated at room temperature, which significantly broadens the field of applications of alkali-activated CSW binders. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainable construction materials; waste management; alkali-activated binder; fluid catalytic cracking; ceramic sanitaryware; mechanical strength; microstructure sustainable construction materials; waste management; alkali-activated binder; fluid catalytic cracking; ceramic sanitaryware; mechanical strength; microstructure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Cosa, J.; Soriano, L.; Borrachero, M.V.; Reig, L.; Payá, J.; Monzó, J.M. Influence of Addition of Fluid Catalytic Cracking Residue (FCC) and the SiO2 Concentration in Alkali-Activated Ceramic Sanitary-Ware (CSW) Binders. Minerals 2018, 8, 123.

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