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Minerals 2018, 8(3), 95; doi:10.3390/min8030095

Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) Based on Physico-Chemical Studies

10 Beskidzka Str., 34-312 Międzybrodzie Żywieckie, Poland
The Museum of the Earth of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, 20/26 Na Skarpie Str., 00-488 Warsaw, Poland
Department of Mineralogy, Petrography and Geochemistry, AGH University of Science and Technology, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
The Polish Geological Institute—National Research Institute, 4 Rakowiecka Str., 00-975 Warsaw, Poland
Earth Science Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 1 Ďumbierska Str., 974-11 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 December 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
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A unique specimen of fossil resin originating from the Dipterocarpaceae tree family found in Miocene brown coal deposits in Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) was investigated via microscopic observations, microhardness testing and infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods. Its form is rare in nature, being an aggregate of three varieties of resin differing in colour, transparency and internal structure. This suggests the formation of the resins at different stages. Further alteration processes, including fossilization and maturation of the resin in a swamp environment resulted in stepwise aromatization of the cyclohexane ring in steroids and cross-linking through formation of ester bonds as well as carbon–carbon bonds between steroid molecules. The various environmental and geological conditions affecting the formation processes of the resins were recorded in their physico-chemical properties. Additionally, heating conditions accelerated by volcanism were proposed as a factor determining the maturation grade of the resin. View Full-Text
Keywords: fossil resins; Sumatra; Indonesia; FT-IR; Raman spectroscopy; microhardness; maturation fossil resins; Sumatra; Indonesia; FT-IR; Raman spectroscopy; microhardness; maturation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Naglik, B.; Kosmowska-Ceranowicz, B.; Natkaniec-Nowak, L.; Drzewicz, P.; Dumańska-Słowik, M.; Matusik, J.; Wagner, M.; Milovsky, R.; Stach, P.; Szyszka, A. Fossilization History of Fossil Resin from Jambi Province (Sumatra, Indonesia) Based on Physico-Chemical Studies. Minerals 2018, 8, 95.

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