Next Article in Journal
Mineralogical and Geochemical Compositions of the Lopingian Coals and Carbonaceous Rocks in the Shugentian Coalfield, Yunnan, China: with Emphasis on Fe-Bearing Minerals in a Continental-Marine Transitional Environment
Next Article in Special Issue
CO2 Absorption and Magnesium Carbonate Precipitation in MgCl2–NH3–NH4Cl Solutions: Implications for Carbon Capture and Storage
Previous Article in Journal
A Review of the Carbon Footprint of Cu and Zn Production from Primary and Secondary Sources
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Minerals 2017, 7(9), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7090169

Connecting the Morphological and Crystal Structural Changes during the Conversion of Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate to Lithium Carbonate Using Multi-Scale X-ray Scattering Measurements

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 10 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage via Mineral Carbonation)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3360 KB, uploaded 14 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

While CO2 storage technologies via carbon mineralization have focused on the use of earth-abundant calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals, there is an emerging interest in the scalable synthesis of alternative carbonates such as lithium carbonate. Lithium carbonate is the carbonated end-product of lithium hydroxide, a highly reactive sorbent for CO2 capture in spacecraft and submarines. Other emerging applications include tuning the morphology of lithium carbonates synthesized from the effluent of treated Li-bearing batteries, which can then be reused in ceramics, glasses, and batteries. In this study, in operando Ultra-Small-Angle, Small-Angle, and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS) measurements were used to link the morphological and crystal structural changes as lithium hydroxide monohydrate is converted to lithium carbonate. The experiments were performed in a flow-through reactor at PCO2 of 1 atm and at temperatures in the range of 25–500 °C. The dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate to form lithium hydroxide occurs in the temperature range of 25–150 °C, while the onset of carbonate formation is evident at around 70 °C. A reduction in the nanoparticle size and an increase in the surface area were noted during the dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate. Lithium carbonate formation increases the nanoparticle size and reduces the surface area. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium hydroxide monohydrate; lithium hydroxide; lithium carbonate; carbon mineralization; Ultra-Small-Angle; Small-Angle; Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS) lithium hydroxide monohydrate; lithium hydroxide; lithium carbonate; carbon mineralization; Ultra-Small-Angle; Small-Angle; Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS)
Figures

Figure 1a

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gadikota, G. Connecting the Morphological and Crystal Structural Changes during the Conversion of Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate to Lithium Carbonate Using Multi-Scale X-ray Scattering Measurements. Minerals 2017, 7, 169.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top