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Minerals 2017, 7(8), 139; doi:10.3390/min7080139

About the Genetic Mechanisms of Apatites: A Survey on the Methodological Approaches

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy
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Received: 15 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract

Apatites are properly considered as a strategic material owing to the broad range of their practical uses, primarily biomedical but chemical, pharmaceutical, environmental and geological as well. The apatite group of minerals has been the subject of a huge number of papers, mainly devoted to the mass crystallization of nanosized hydroxyapatite (or carboapatite) as a scaffold for osteoinduction purposes. Many wet and dry methods of synthesis have been proposed. The products have been characterized using various techniques, from the transmission electron microscopy to many spectroscopic methods like IR and Raman. The experimental approach usually found in literature allows getting tailor made micro- and nano- crystals ready to be used in a wide variety of fields. Despite the wide interest in synthesis and characterization, little attention has been paid to the relationships between bulk structure and corresponding surfaces and to the role plaid by surfaces on the mechanisms involved during the early stages of growth of apatites. In order to improve the understanding of their structure and chemical variability, close attention will be focused on the structural complexity of hydroxyapatite (HAp), on the richness of its surfaces and their role in the interaction with the precursor phases, and in growth kinetics and morphology. View Full-Text
Keywords: apatites; structure; equilibrium shape; growth shape; supersaturation; nucleation apatites; structure; equilibrium shape; growth shape; supersaturation; nucleation
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Pastero, L.; Bruno, M.; Aquilano, D. About the Genetic Mechanisms of Apatites: A Survey on the Methodological Approaches. Minerals 2017, 7, 139.

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