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Minerals 2017, 7(6), 93; doi:10.3390/min7060093

PbSO4 Leaching in Citric Acid/Sodium Citrate Solution and Subsequent Yielding Lead Citrate via Controlled Crystallization

1
School of Resource and Civil Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073, China
2
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Saeed Chehreh Chelgani
Received: 8 April 2017 / Revised: 23 May 2017 / Accepted: 23 May 2017 / Published: 6 June 2017
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Abstract

Lead citrate is a key precursor for the green recycling of spent lead acid battery paste in a citric acid/sodium citrate (CA/SC) solution. In this study, the main paste component, PbSO4, was leached and crystallized to yield lead citrate. Results showed that the leaching of PbSO4 in citric acid/sodium citrate solution was remarkably enhanced by an increase in temperature from 35 °C to 95 °C and an increase in sodium citrate (SC) concentration from 50 to 650 g/L. In comparison, increasing the citric acid/sodium citrate molar ratio inhibited this leaching. Controlled crystallization through cooling the solution or adjusting the pH of the solution can effectively produce lead citrate crystals. The X-ray diffraction patterns of four products obtained in a comparison test were all consistent with Pb3(C6H5O7)2. However, the scanning electron microscopy analysis suggested that the morphology was distinct from rods to sheets, which were mainly affected by the temperature variation. View Full-Text
Keywords: spent lead acid battery paste; lead citrate; leaching; crystallization spent lead acid battery paste; lead citrate; leaching; crystallization
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He, D.; Yang, C.; Wu, Y.; Liu, X.; Xie, W.; Yang, J. PbSO4 Leaching in Citric Acid/Sodium Citrate Solution and Subsequent Yielding Lead Citrate via Controlled Crystallization. Minerals 2017, 7, 93.

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